กรอบความสัมพันธ์ทางกฎหมายมหาชนระหว่างการเลือกตั้งโดยลับและการลงคะแนนเสียงแทนคนพิการ

บทเรียนจากยุโรปสู่ประเทศไทย

  • ลลิล ก่อวุฒิกุลรังษี คณะนิติศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยธรรมศาสตร์
  • รวินท์ ลีละพัฒนะ คณะนิติศาสตร์ จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย
คำสำคัญ: การเลือกตั้งโดยลับ, คนพิการ, ผู้ช่วยเลือกตั้ง, อนุสัญญาว่าด้วยสิทธิคนพิการ

บทคัดย่อ

สิทธิการออกเสียงเลือกตั้งโดยลับเป็นสิทธิมนุษยชนขั้นพื้นฐานซึ่งถูกรับรองเอาไว้ในข้อ 29 ของอนุสัญญาว่าด้วยสิทธิคนพิการ กระนั้นคนพิการบางคนนั้นก็มีสภาพแห่งกายที่ไม่เอื้ออำนวยให้เขาสามารถออกเสียงเลือกตั้งด้วยตนเอง โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งคนพิการที่ไม่มีแขนทั้งสองข้างอันเป็นสาเหตุทำให้เขาต้องอาศัยความช่วยเหลือจากผู้อื่น ทั้งในการทำเครื่องหมายลงในบัตรเลือกตั้งและการนำบัตรนั้นใส่ลงไปในหีบเลือกตั้ง ด้วยเหตุดังกล่าว ข้อ 29 ของอนุสัญญาว่าด้วยสิทธิคนพิการจึงรับรองให้คนพิการสามารถแต่งตั้งบุคคลขึ้นมาเพื่อช่วยเหลือพวกเขาในกระบวนการการเลือกตั้ง อย่างไรก็ดี ถึงแม้การเลือกตั้งโดยอาศัย “ผู้ช่วยเลือกตั้ง” นี้จะอำนวยให้คนพิการสามารถมีส่วนร่วมทางการเมืองในระดับประเทศ แต่การเช่นว่าก็มีผลทำให้ความลับของพวกเขาถูกเปิดเผยแก่ผู้ที่ช่วยเหลือ บทความวิจัยนี้มุ่งศึกษากรอบความสัมพันธ์ทางกฎหมายมหาชนระหว่างสิ่งทั้งสองซึ่งระบบกฎหมายรัฐธรรมนูญไทยรับนำไปปรับใช้ กฎหมายเลือกตั้งฉบับหลักของประเทศ ณ ปัจจุบัน อย่างพระราชบัญญัติประกอบรัฐธรรมนูญว่าด้วยการเลือกตั้งสมาชิกสภาผู้แทนราษฎร พ.ศ. 2561 นั้นยังคงมีเนื้อหาบางส่วนที่ยังไม่สอดคล้องกับกรอบความสัมพันธ์ทางกฎหมายมหาชนข้างต้นอยู่ บทความวิจัยนี้จะอาศัยบทเรียนจากการดำเนินการคุ้มครองสิทธิการเลือกตั้งโดยลับของคนพิการและการตั้งผู้ช่วยเลือกตั้งตามพันธกรณีภายใต้อนุสัญญาว่าด้วยสิทธิคนพิการจากทวีปยุโรปซึ่งได้ชื่อว่าเป็นแม่แบบของการพัฒนาแนวคิดสิทธิมนุษยชนมาเป็นแนวทางสำหรับการปรับปรุงกฎหมายไทยให้สอดคล้องกับกรอบความสัมพันธ์ทางกฎหมายมหาชนระหว่างการเลือกตั้งโดยลับและการลงคะแนนเสียงแทนคนพิการ

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2021-06-28