Eco-Adventure Tourism: An Awareness of White Water Rafting Tour Operator Standard at Songpraek Village, Phang-nga Province

Main Article Content

Chainun Chaiyasain
Areeta Tirasattayapitak


The paper analyzed the current situation of eco-adventure tourism and the awareness of rafting standard from the views of white water rafting tour operators in order to recommend the proper guidelines for the service standard improvement on the basis of sustainable tourism management. The study employed the cross-sectional approach and the census study by using semi-structure interview to collect the data from eight white water rafting tour operators. The study results revealed that the current situation of tourism management at the village is crowded and the growth rate is increasing every year with the total number of tourists in average at 420-2000 people per day during the high season. At present, eight companies have legally registered the tourism business license. The awareness of rafting standard among tour operators is low and most of them do not practice such regulations. Hence, the government sector should establish the measures to control and enforce the tour operators to implement the rafting standard in their operation and should efficiently monitor the operation in order to overcome the impacts and increase the benefits to the attraction tourists, environment and enterprises.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



Attractions Promotion Division, Product Promotion Department, Tourism Authority of Thailand.
(2012). Rafting Vs 7 Greens. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from
Ballantyne, R., & Packer, J. (2011). Using tourism free-choice learning experiences to promote
environmentally sustainable behaviour: The role of post-visit ‘action resources’. Environmental Education Research 17 (2) : 201–215.
Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Sutherland, L. A. (2011). Visitors’ memories of wildlife tourism:
Implications for the design of powerful interpretive experiences. Tourism Management 32 : 770-779.
Balmford, A., Beresford, J., Green, J., Naidoo, R., Walpole, M., & Manica, A. (2009). A global
perspective on trends in nature-based tourism, PLOS Biology 7 (6), [Online]. Retrieved March 3, 2013. From https://www.plosbiology.otrg.
Beedie, P., and Hudson, S. (2003). Emergence of mountain based adventure tourism. Annals
of Tourism Research 30 (3), 625-643.

Bell, S., Simpson, M., Tyrväinen, L., Sievänen, T., & Pröbstl, U. (2009). European forest
recreation and tourism: A handbook. London: Taylor and Francis.
Bentley, T.A. and Page, S.J. (2001). Scoping the extent of Adventure Tourism Accident, Annals
of Tourism Research 28 (3), 705-726.
Black, R., & Crabtree, A. (2007). Quality control and certification in ecotourism. Willingford:
CAB International.
Boyle, S., Joham, C., & Abdullah, A. B. M. (2012). The Hong Kong Arts Festival and Cultural
Activity Choices. International Review of Business Research Papers 8 (4), 131-143.
Buckley, R., Zhong, L. S., Cater, C., & Chen, T. (2008). Shengtai luyou: Cross-cultural comparison
in ecotourism. Annals of Tourism Research 35 (4) : 945-968.
Buckley, Ralf. (2009a). Ecotourism: Principles and practices. Wallingford: CAB International.
Carter, R.W., & Beeton, R.J.S. (2004). A model of cultural change and tourism. Asia Pacific
Journal of Tourism Research 9 (4), 423-442.
Carter, R.W., & Beeton, R.J.S. (2008). Managing cultural change and tourism: a review and
perspective. In B. Prideaux, D.J. Dallon T., & K. Chon (Eds.) Cultural and Heritage Tourism in Asia and the Pacific (pp.134-156). London: Roultedge.
Chareanpunsirikul, S. (2001). Notes for a lecture on Introduction of Tourism.
Social and Cultural Impacts Of Tourism [In Thai]. Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University.
Chuetaharn, S. (2004). The ecotourism management of Thai-style homestay at Plai Pongpang
Sub-district, Ampawa District, Samut Songkhram Province [In Thai]. Published Master's thesis, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University.
Department of Tourism Ministry of Tourism and Sports. (2014). Summary of Tourist in January
– December 2013 [In Thai]. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from /Stat/22950.pdf
Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Wildlife Conservation Office.
(2006). [In Thai]. Retrieved August 4, 2012, from
Division of Attraction Development Department of Tourism. (2005). Handbook of Evaluation of
Ecotourism Quality [In Thai]. Retrieved March 15, 2014 from /2123.pdf
Division of Attraction Development Department of Tourism. (2013). Handbook of Thailand
Tourism Standard, Rafting [In Thai]. Retrieved February 11, 2014, from 626.pdf

Eja, E., Otu, J., Agbor, E., & Samuel, E. (2013). Community Leadership and Attitude to Impact of
Ecotourism Development in Cross River State. Journal of Studies in Social Sciences 3 (2), 151-163.
Evans, S. (2003). Quest for adventure and profit. Unpublished paper on development of
adventure tourism amongst UK tour operators.
Fennell, D. (1999). Ecotourism: An introduction. London: Routledge
Fennell, D. A., & Dowling, R. K. (Eds.). (2003). Ecotourism policy and planning. CABI.
Fredman, P., & Sandell, K. (2009). “Protect, preserve, present”- The role of tourism in
Swedish National Parks. In: F. Warwick & C.M. Hall (Eds), Tourism and National Parks. International Perspectives on development, histories and change. Abingdon: Routledge, Contemporary Geographies of leisure, Tourism and mobility.
Fredman, P., & Tyrväinen, L. (2010). Frontiers in Nature-Based Tourism. Scandinavian Journal
of Hospitality and Tourism 10 (3), 177-189.
Gold Coast City Council (2007). Special interest tourism. Retrieve January 11, 2007, from
Hudson, S., ed. (2002). Sport and Adventure Tourism. USA: Haworth Hospitality Press.
Kaewsuriya, R. (2002). The Tourism in the 21st Century [In Thai]. ECOTOURISM NETWORK
Newsletter. November (13)
Karanth, K. K., & DeFries, R. (2011). Nature‐based tourism in Indian protected areas: New
challenges for park management. Conservation Letters 4 (2), 137-149.
Lawton, L. & Weaver, D. (2001). Nature-based Tourism and Ecotourism. In B. Faulkner, G.
Moscardo & E. Laws (Eds.). Tourism in the 21st Century: Lessons from experience (34-48). New York: Continuum.
McCarthy, P. & Whiriskey, J. (2006). Adventure Tourism. Fact Sheet No. 55. Retrieved from
Mihalic, T. (2006). Nature-based products, ecotourism and adventure tourism. In D.Buhalis & C.
Costa (Eds.), Tourism Business Frontiers- Consumers, Products and Industry. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth- Heinemann.
Ministry of Tourism and Sports. (2011). The National Tourism Development Plan in 2012-2016
[In Thai]. Retrieved February 12, 2014
Piyaworatham, P. (June 3, 2010). Interview.
Prapuetkit, S. (2010). An Evaluation of Attraction Site In Amphur Muang Chanwad Trad To
Create The Ecotourism Route[In Thai]. Published Master's thesis, Srinakharinwirot University.
Reimer, J. K., & Walter, P. (2013). How do you know it when you see it? Community-based
ecotourism in the Cardamom Mountains of southwestern Cambodia. Tourism Management 34, 122-132.
Rungtawanruengsri, S., et al. (2010). The Assessment of the Potentials of Community-Based
Eco-tourism Management: A Case Study of Phuphaphet Cave and Jedkot Cave Tambon Palmpattana, Amphoe Manang, Changwat Satun. Office of the Higher Education Commission.
Saeng-Arun, S. (2005). Ecotourism [In Thai]. Retrieved June 30, 2011, from
Santasombat, S., et al. (2001). Ecotourism, Cultural Diversity and Natural Resource management
[In Thai]. Chiang Mai: Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge Studies Center for Research and Sustainable Development. Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University
Shephard, G., and Evans, S. (2005). Adventure Tourism- Hard decisions, soft opinions and
home for tea: adventure on the hoof. In M. Novelli (Ed.). Niche Tourism – Contemporary issues, trends and cases (pp. 201-212). Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinmann.
Sriworapot, K., et al. (2009). Approach in Developing Adventure Tourism Activity on Chaweng
Beach, Koh Samui District, Suratthani [In Thai]. Published Master's thesis, Naresuan University . Retrieved February 12, 2014 from
Subbiah, K., & Kannan, S. (2012). The Management Strategies of Ecotourism Development in
Papua New Guinea. International Journal of Economics Business and Management Studies 1 (3), 114-120.
Swarbrooke, J., Beard, C., Leckie, S., and Pomfret, G. (2003). Adventure Tourism. The New
Frontier. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinmann
Sawetserni, S. (2013). Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) set up tourism target for 2014
reached to 2 trillion Baht – foreign tourists will visit Thailand 28 million. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=190173:-57-2-28-&catid=176:2009-06-25-09-26-02&Itemid=524#.UyKscYW_P_w
Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research. (2006). Project of development for
Tourism Activities [In Thai]. Bangkok: Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research. (2006). Development of Rafting Standard [In Thai]. Bangkok: Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research
Tourism Authority of Thailand. (2002). The National Eco-tourism Action Plan [In Thai]. Retrieved
March 20, 2014, from
United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2009). World Tourism Organization. Tourism
Highlights, Edition 2009. Retrieve February 8, 2013, from UNWTO_Highlights 09_en_LR.pdf.
Weaver, D.B., & Lawton, L.J. (2007). Twenty years on: The state of contemporary ecotourism
research. Tourism Management, 28, 1168-1179.