Development of Executive Function Skills for Undergraduate Students of Education Program by Using Board Games

Main Article Content

Ontida Prasarn


The objectives of this research were: 1) to develop board games for learning in inclusive education subjects that affect the development of executive function skills for undergraduate students of education programs; 2) to compare pretest and posttest executive function skills of undergraduate students of education programs; and 3) to study satisfaction in learning management by using board games. This research was classroom action research using the four steps of the PAOR research cycle, including planning, action, observation of activity participation, and performance feedback. The statistic used for data analysis included the mean. For difference testing, the t-test for independent samples was administered. Qualitative data from classroom situations were analyzed by descriptive analysis.

The research findings found that: 1) Board games could develop creativity. Since the board games consisted of easy rules to be understood and could enhance planning as well as flexible and careful thinking and interaction in the playing group, in game play, the content relates to students’ daily lives or stories. In addition, the students were part of the content. 2) Comparative findings of ability in executive function skills, emotion, and behavior of students majoring in education, science, and Thai language from the posttest Mean scores, in terms of shift, initiate, working memory, and planning after the intervention, were significantly increased at the.05 level.  and 3) The students’ overall satisfaction in learning management by using the board games was at "the highest" level (gif.latex?\bar{x} = 4.56, S.D. = 0.575).

Article Details

How to Cite
Prasarn, O. (2023). Development of Executive Function Skills for Undergraduate Students of Education Program by Using Board Games. Journal of Arts Management, 7(2), 420–441. Retrieved from
Research Articles
Author Biography

Ontida Prasarn, Faculty of Education, Sisaket Rajabhat University




Ananpatiwet S., Waeokrathok N.T., & Kanngoolearm S. (2022). Relationship Between Resilience, Friendship Intimacy, and Depression of Secondary School Students in Nakhon Ratchasima Province. APHEIT Journal of Nursing and Health, 4(3), e2837.

Anumat, P., Haenjoh J., & Supwirapakorn W. (2018). The Effects of Working Memory Training Program on Senior High School Students. Journal of Educational Measurement, Mahasarakham University, 24(2), 143-152.

Ashwanantakul, S. (2022). Board Game Universe V2. Salt Publishing.

Banich, M. (2009). Executive Function: The Search for an Integrated Account. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(2), 89-94. https://doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01615.x

Barkley, R. A. (2012). Executive Functions. Guilford.

Buakanok, Sean F., Fongkanta, P., & Promkhan, P. (2021). Effects of Board Game Using on English Skills and Students' Attitude and Motivation of Computer Program Students, Faculty of Education, Lampang Rajabhat University. Journal of Chandrakasemsarn, 27(2), 279-297.

Carolyn P. G., & Constance L. R. (2011). Elementary Executive Functions Training. PRO-ED.

Chularut, P. (2020). Cognitive Psychology. Chulalongkorn University.

Chularut, P., Aeamtussana, T., & Kambhu Na Ayudhaya, P. (2019). A Construction of Executive Function Inventory for Adolescent Students of Senior High School Level. Suthiparithat, 33(107), 94–110.

Cooper-Kahn, J., & Foster, M. (2013). Boosting Executive Skills in the Classroom. Wiley.

Das, J.P., & Misra, S.B. (2014). Cognitive Planning and Executive Functions: Applications in Management and Education. Sage.

Dawson, P., & Guare, R. (2012). Coaching Students with Executive Skills Deficits: The Guilford Practical Intervention in the Schools. Guilford.

Despeisse, M. (2018). Teaching Sustainability Leadership in Manufacturing: A Reflection on the Educational Benefits of the Board Game Factory Heroes. Procedia CIRP, 69, 621-626.

Drigas, A., & Karyotaki, M. (2017). Attentional Control and other Executive Functions. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 12(3), 219–233.

Friedman-Krauss, A.H., Raver, C.C., Neuspiel, J. M., & Kinsel, J. (2014). Child Behavior Problems, Teacher Executive Functions, and Teacher Stress in Head Start Classrooms. Early Education & Development, 25(5), 681-702. doi:10.1080/10409289.2013.825190

Gashaj, V., Dapp, L., Trninic, D., & Roebers, C. (2021). The Effect of Video Games, Exergames and Board Games on Executive Functions in Kindergarten and 2nd Grade: An Explorative Longitudinal Study. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 25, 1-8.

Gilmore, C., & Cragg, L. (2014). Teachers' Understanding of the Role of Executive Functions in Mathematics Learning. Mind, Brain & Education, 8(3), 132-136. https://doi:10.1111/mbe.12050

Gioia, A.G., Isquith, K.P., Guy, C.S., & Kenworthy, L. (2015). BRIEF2 Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. (2nd ed.). PAP.

Haenjohn, J. (2015). Brain & Emotions: A Miracle Connection. Ratchaphruek Journal, 13(3), 9-19.

Han-Methee, S. (2018). EF Executive Functions for Children 7-12 Year for Parent and Teacher. Aksorn Sampan Press (1987).

Jitanan, M., Lalitpasan, U., & Lojanasupareuk, P. (2023). The Needs Assessment to Build Boardgame for Enhancing Quality of Life for Undergraduate Students of Faculty of Education, Kasetsart University. Journal of Social Science and Cultural, 7(2), 303-317.

Kermani, F. K., Mohammadi, M. R., Yadegari, F., Haresabadi, F., Sadeghi, S. M., & Haghighi, S. D. (2016). Working Memory Training in the Form of Structured Games in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 11(4), 224-233.

Mann, D. P., Snover, R., Boyd, J. R., List, A. J., Kuhn, A. J., Devereaux, B. N., & ... Middaugh, G. L. (2015). Executive Functioning: Relationship with High School Student Role Performance. Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT), 3(4), 1-17.


Mayer, B., & Harris, C. (2010). Libraries Got Game: Aligned Learning Through Modern Board Games. ALA. Editions.

McNulty LCSW-C, Laurie Chaikind. (2020). Focus and Thrive: Executive Functioning Strategies for Teens: Tools to Get Organized, Plan Ahead, and Achieve Your Goals. Rockridge.

Niedderer, K., Holthoff-Detto, V., Rompay, T., Karahanoğlu, V., Ludden, G., Almeida, R., Durán, R., Aguado, Y., Lim, J., Smith, T., Harrison, D., Craven, M., Gosling, J., Orton, L., & Tournier, I. (2022). This is Me: Evaluation of a Boardgame to Promote Social Engagement,

Wellbeing and Agency in People with Dementia Through Mindful Life-storytelling. Journal of Aging Studies, 60(100995), 1-12.

Noda, S., Shirotsuki, K., & Nakao, M. (2019). The Effectiveness of Intervention with Board Games: A Systematic Review. Bio Psycho Social Med. 13, 22.

Paitoon, T., & Panawong, C. (2022). The Comparison of executive Functions of Students between the Jitsueksa PBL-and-PLC-Integrated School and the Regular School. Social Sciences Research and Academic Journal, 17(1), 145-158. /JSSRA/article/view/253524.

Palittapongarnpim, P. (2018). How to Raise Children to Get Executive Function. Amarin.

Phetprayoon, C., Lertratdejakul, C., & Phatthanaphakdee, N. (2011). Self-Adjustment Ability of First Year Students in Public University. The Journal of King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, 21(1), 157-166.


Ratanavarachai, T. (2021). Integrated Brain Biochemistry: Brain Metabolism and Synapse. Chula press.

Mayer, R., Parong, J., & Bainbridge, K. (2019). Young Adults Learning Executive Function Skills by Playing Focused Video Games. Cognitive Development, 49(7465), 43–50.

Roonkaseam, N., Ngamsnit, S., Sompuet, P., Supapong, J., Puengsangwal, S., Wilailuk, N.T., Tongchum, P., Wiriyawit, N., Sarasuk, P., Kositpipat, O., & Trakooltasjaroen, P. (2022). The Method of Reducing Hate Speech with the Process of Developing Creative Media “Innovative Board Games”. Journal of MCU Peace Studies, 10(6), 2608-2621.

Sariwat, L. (2015). Cognition. O.S. Printing.

Schwaighofer, M., Bühner, M., & Fischer, F. (2016). Executive Functions as Moderators of the Worked Example Effect: When Shifting is More Important than Working Memory Capacity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(7), 982-1000. https://doi:10.1037/edu0000115

Selinker, M., Ernest, J., Garfield, R., Jackson, S., Levy, C. R., Looney, A., Nephew, M., Peterson, P., Steenson, L., Tidball, J., Woodruff, T., & Yu, D. (2011). The Kobold Guide to Board Game Design. Open Design LLC.

Slack, J. (2017). The Board Game Designer’s Guide: The Easy 4 Step Process to Create Amazing Games That People Can't Stop Playing. Kindle Edition.

Tangpakdee, R. (2022). The Development of Board Games Production Model for Education in Thailand. STOU Education Journal, 15(2), 117-132.

Tungkunanan, P. (2020). Learning Model of Undergraduate Students: Confirmatory Factor Analysis. International Journal of Instruction, 13(3), 665-678.

Wongwanich, S. (2017). Classroom Action Research (19th ed.). Chulalongkorn University.