• WIKROM KRUNGKAEO Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Phuket Rajabhat University


Gown, Baju Pangjang, Baba Ethnic, Batik Sarong, Costume


           This article is the study of dressing culture of the Baba women, a Thai – Chinese ethnics in the southern part of Thailand, by reviewing related documents, interviewing locals, and  observing the old photos.  The researcher focused on exploring about the gown worn by Baba women in the early age called Baju Panjang. The gown is loose and long to the calf of the leg. It is long sleeved blazer with no button from the collar to the edge, yet the plackets are held by the pin called Korongsang. The Baba women mostly wear this gown in the important traditions e.g. wedding ceremony. 

          The evolution of Baju Panjang could be divided into  phases: 1) Initial phase: the gown was tailored with dense silk, cotton, or satin in burgundy red or pastel pink; peony flower tracery embroidered with silk golden braid or golden braid as the flowers represent prosperity or some of the gown were embroidered in water wave tracery. The edge of the gowns was decorated by the rabbit fur. The gown is worn with the Malaya style Songket., 2) Changing phase: The gown was tailored with thick linen colored in light brown, dark brown, or brick red. The pattern of the fabric was the small tables. The gown is worn with the batik sarong called Lasem produced in Java Island, Indonesia. The Lasem are mostly penny brown or brick red with the tracery of birds, butterflies, flowers, and geometry shapes., 3) Developing phase: The fabric of the gown was changed to the thin linen which was more comfortable for the local weather of the southern part of Thailand. The popular colors were ivory, light blue and light pink. The gown featured the tracery of flowers and vines embroidered with thread looked like perforated; was worn with the batik  sarong as mentioned above., 4) Developing phase: The new innovation has played important role in the society therefore there are various types of fabric to use. At the present, most of the gown is tailored with colorful lace. The most popular colors are red, old rose, blue, and dark pink. The lace was decorated by sequins in the tracery of flowers. The gown is often worn with the batik sarong of colorful printed tracery with golden liners or sequin embroidered. From the past to present, the Baba women wear Baju Panjang with ornaments made from various materials upon their social status e.g. gold, diamond, and other jewelries. 

          In the past, Baba women mostly wore Baju Panjang only for important occasions as the fabric used to make the gown was quite expensive and needed to import from other countries including German organdy, Middle – east muslin, and Indonesian fine hand painted patek. The price of these fabrics may be up to more than ten thousand bahr depending on their quality and design. Nowadays, the development of technologies and innovations have played an important role in the human lives. The clothing industry can produce various styles of clothe to meet the needs of women. However, Baju Panjang is not picked to wear in the wedding or other important occasions as in the past anymore. The increasing in quality and design of the gown has made it to be used as the signature cloth in both national and international beauty contests. Moreover, the traditional cloth rental business which is a part of cultural tourism also generates lots of income to the community.



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บทความวิชาการ | Academic Article