Main Article Content
This article presents problems and preventive guidelines for restoring eutrophic freshwater lakes caused by urban runoff, runoff from the farm and agricultural areas, untreated wastewater. Phosphorus plays a significant role in causing eutrophication, especially in freshwater sources. The promising solutions that must consider including the management of phosphorus nutrients, both external and internal sources. This article will present methods and techniques to manage Phosphorus that could apply to Thailand. Suggested methods and techniques were compiled from research articles, a case study of eutrophic lakes in Khon Kaen province and field site visits in United States of America including the use of Nutrient Management Act (the Pennsylvania State Act 38), No-till practices preventing soil erosion, Co-composting, Vertical Loop Reactors, Alum application, Floating Treatment Wetlands.
Chesapeake Bay Program. (2019). Watershed. Retrieved on 3 January 2019 from https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/watershed.
Creech, E. (2017) Blog post: Saving Money, Time and Soil: The Economics of No-Till Farming. Retrieved on January 2019 from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2019) https://www.usda.gov/media/blog/2017/11/30/saving-money-time-and-soil-economics-no-till-farming.
Dunne, E.J., and Reddy, K.R. (2005). Phosphorus biogeochemistry of wetlands in agricultural watersheds. Chapter in Dunne, E.J., K.R. Reddy and O.T. Carton. (eds.). 2005. Nutrient management in agricultural watersheds: A wetlands solution. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 105-119.
Fan, C., Zhang, L., Qin, B. et al. (2004). Estimation on dynamic release of phosphorus from wind-induced suspended particulate matter in Lake Taihu. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences; 47: 8, 710–719. https://doi.org/10.1360/02yd0438
Hupfer, M., Gächter, R., and Giovanoli, R. (1995) Transformation of phosphorus species in settling seston and during early sediment diagenesis. Aquatic Sciences, 57(4), 305.
Noyma, N.P., et al. (2016). Controlling cyanobacterial blooms through effectiveflocculation and sedimentation withcombined use offlocculants and phosphorus adsorbing natural soil and modified clay. Water Research 97, 26-38. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.11.057
Pavlineri, N., Skoulikidis, N.T., and Tsihrintzis, V. A. (2017). Constructed Floating Wetlands: A review of research, design, operation and management aspects, and data meta-analysis, Chemical Engineering Journal, 308, 1120-1132.
Paerl H., Xu H., McCarthy M., Zhu G., Qin B., Li Y. and Gardner, W. (2011). Controlling harmful cyanobacteria blooms in a hyper-eutrophic lake (Lake Taihu, China): the need for a dual nutrient (N&P) management strategy. Water Research 45(5), 1973-83.
Psenner, R., Boström, B., Dinka, M., Pettersson, K., Puckso, R., and Sager, M. (1988) Fractionation of phosphorus in suspended matter and sediment. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement, 30, 98–103.
Schneider, F. (2019). Nutrient Management Program. Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Retrieved on June 2018 from
Sánchez-Carrillo, S., Alatorre, L.C., Sánchez-Andrés, R. et al. (2007). Eutrophication and Sedimentation Patterns in Complete Exploitation of Water Resources Scenarios: An Example from Northwestern Semi-arid Mexico. Environ Monit Assess 132: 377. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-006-9541-x
United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). (1996). Managing Urban Runoff in Nonpoint Pointers: Managing Urban Runoff, Pointer No. 7
United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). (2017). Biosolids. Retrieved on Feb 2019 from https://www.epa.gov/biosolids
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2018). Natural Resources Conservation Service. Report: Chesapeake Bay Watershed Action Plan. Retrieved on January 2019 from https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_MEDIA/nrcseprd1415210.pdf
Vymazal J. (2007). Removal of nutrients in various types of constructed wetlands. Science of The Total Environment 380(1-3), 48-65.
Wang C.-Y., Sample D. J. and Bell C. (2014). Vegetation effects on floating treatment wetland nutrient removal and harvesting strategies in urban stormwater ponds. Science of The Total Environment 499, 384-93.
Wang C.-Y., Sample D. J., Day S. D. and Grizzard T. J. (2015). Floating treatment wetland nutrient removal through vegetation harvest and observations from a field study. Ecological Engineering 78, 15-26.
World Health Organization, Geneva. (1998). Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2nd ed. Addendum to Vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information. Retrieved on January 2019 from https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/water-quality/guidelines/chemicals/cyanobactoxins.pdf?ua=1
Xu H., Paerl H., Qin B., Zhu G. and Gao G. (2010). Nitrogen and phosphorus inputs control phytoplankton growth in eutrophic Lake Taihu, China. Limnology and Oceanography 55(1), 420-3.
Zamparas M. and Zacharias I. (2014). Restoration of eutrophic freshwater by managing internal nutrients: A Review. Science of The Total Environment 496, 551-62.
Zhu L., Li Z. and Ketola, T. (2011). Biomass accumulations and nutrient uptake of plants cultivated on artificial floating beds in China's rural area. Ecological Engineering 37(10), 1460-6.