Tourist Perception toward Destination Brand Image Sustainability: Mae Kam Pong Community Case Study

Main Article Content

ณัฐวุฒิ วิทา
สุวารี นามวงค์


This study aimed to measure sustainable community – based tourism brand images as viewed by tourists and stakeholders in tourist attractions: a case study of Mae Kam Pong tourism community. The objectives are as follows,

  1. the relationship between the brand image based on tourism holistic-attribute and the brand image based on the uniqueness of slow tourism - based tourist attractions in Mae Kam Pong tourism community

  2. the relationship between the brand images based on the uniqueness of the slow tourism and the brand images based on the psychology emotion – based tourist attractions in Mae Kam Pong tourism community

  3. the relationship between the brand images based on the psychology emotion and the brand images based on the sustainability of the community – based tourist attractions in Mae Kam Pong tourism community

This quantitative research employed by the random sampling that consists of people staying on the community and receiving the service from the restaurants. 392 were collected by simple random sampling. The data analyses by the content analysis in the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and the Linear Regression

The result of this quantitative research was found that tourism characteristic affected the uniqueness of the slow tourism, the uniqueness of the slow tourism affected the emotional psychology on the attractions, and the emotional psychology affected the sustainability of the community. The conceptual framework developed for the leader or the committee in this community. This can be a marketing strategy in the marketing promotion in case of slow tourism and sustainable tourism.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



คมกฤต วงษ์นาง, เกศรา สุกเพชร, ศรีสุดา แซ่ลี้ และสุรัตน์ วรางค์รัตน์. (2556). การจัดการท่องเที่ยวโดยชุมชน
แบบมีส่วนร่วมของชุมชนรอบพื้นที่ เหมืองแม่เมาะอ าเภอแม่เมาะ จังหวัดล าปาง. วารสารวิชาการ
การท่องเที่ยวไทยนานาชาติ, (9)1, 1-15.
จินดา ขลิบทอง. (2559). แนวทางการพัฒนาการจัดการท่องเที่ยวเชิงเกษตรอย่างยั่งยืนแบบมีส่วนร่วม
ของชุมชนจังหวัดนนทบุรี. วารสารวิชาการการท่องเที่ยวไทยนานาชาติ, 12 (2), 59-82.
ฐิติ ฐิติจ าเริญพร, วิพิมพ์ เสนาวงศ์, วัลลภา ทรงพระคุณ, สัญญา รักชาติ, ธันวา เบญจวรรณ, สุรพล กิ้งแก้ว,…
สมจิตร บุญเลิศ. (2554). การจัดการขีดความสามารถในการรองรับของพื้นที่เพื่อการท่องเที่ยว
โดยชุมชน: บ้านแม่ก าปอง อ าเภอแม่ออน จังหวัดเชียงใหม่ ระยะ ที่ 1. กรุงเทพฯ: ส านักงาน
ณัฏฐพัชร มณีโรจน์. (2560). การจัดการการท่องเที่ยวโดยชุมชน: Community Based Tourism
Management. วารสารวิชาการการท่องเที่ยวไทยนานาชาติ, 13 (2), 25-46.
เณรัญชรา กิจวิกรานต์. (2557). ภาพลักษณ์อาหารไทย การรับรู้คุณภาพอาหารไทยและแนวโน้มพฤติกรรม
การท่องเที่ยวเชิงอาหารของนักท่องเที่ยวชาวต่างชาติ. วารสารวิชาการการท่องเที่ยวไทย
นานาชาติ, 10 (1), 12-28.
ยุทธ ไกยวรรณ์. (2556). การวิเคราะห์สถิติหลายตัวแปรส าหรับงานวิจัย. กรุงเทพฯ : โรงพิมพ์แห่ง
สุชาติ ประเสริฐรัฐสินธุ์. (2555). ระเบียบวิธีการวิจัยทางสังคมศาสตร์.พิมพ์ครั้งที่ 15. กรุงเทพฯ : สามลดา.
Ahebwa, W. M., Aporu, J. P., & Nyakaana, J. B. (2016). Bridging community livelihoods and
cultural conservation through tourism: Case study of Kabaka heritage trail in Uganda.
Tourism and Hospitality Research, 16(2), 103-115.
Al-Kwifi, O. S. (2015). The impact of destination images on tourists’ decision making. Journal
of Hospitality & Tourism Technology, 6(2), 174-194.
Anonymous (2015). Tourism Industry - Chapter 1: Industry Profile - 1.4 Tourism agencies.
Beverly, Emerging Markets Direct Media Holdings, LLC: 8-9.
Asli, D. A. T., Croes, R., & Jorge Bartels, V. (2014). Rise and fall of community-based tourismfacilitators, inhibitors and outcomes. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes,
6(3), 261-276.
Baloglu, S., & Brinberg, D. (1997). Affective image of tourism destinations. (Cover story).
Journal of Travel Research, 35(4), 11.
Barisic, P. M. A., Prebezac, D. P., & Mikulic, J. P. (2012). The image and identity of Croatia as a
tourist destination: An exploratoe study,Retrieved from
Beerli, A., & Martín, J. D. (2004). Factors influencing destination image. Annals of Tourism
Research, 31(3), 657-681. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2004.01.010
Berno, T., & Bricker, K. (2001). Sustainable tourism development: the long road from theory to
practice. International journal of economic development, 3(3), 1-18.
Buhalis, D. (1999). Tourism on the Greek Islands: Issues of peripherality, competitiveness and
development. The International Journal of Tourism Research, 1(5), 341.
Chew, E. Y. T., & Jahari, S. A. (2014). Destination image as a mediator between perceived risks
and revisit intention: A case of post-disaster Japan. Tourism Management, 40, 382-
393. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2013.07.008
Chindris-Vasioiu, O., & Tocan, M. (2 0 1 5 ) . Sustainable development in tourism-factor of
economic growth. Knowledge Horizons, Economics, 7(2), 160-164.
Cochran, W. G. (2007). Sampling techniques, John Wiley & Sons.
Conway, D., & Timms, B. F. (2010). Re-branding alternative tourism in the Caribbean: The case
for 'slow tourism'. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1 0 ( 4 ) , 3 2 9 - 3 4 4 .
Cooper, D. R., et al. (2006). Business research methods, McGraw-Hill Irwin New York.
Crompton, J. L. (1979) . An assessment of the image of Mexico as a vacation destination and
the influence of geographical location upon that image. Journal of Travel Research,
17(4), 18-23.
Dickinson, J. E., Lumsdon, L. M., & Robbins, D. (2011). Slow travel: issues for tourism and
climate change. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(3), 281.
Do Valle, P. O., Mendes, J., & Guerreiro, M. (2012). Residents' Participation in Events, Events
Image, and Destination Image: A Correspondence Analysis. Journal of Travel &
Tourism Marketing, 29(7), 647.
doi: 10.1080/13032917.2011.556222
Edgell, D. L. S. R. (2015). International Sustainable Tourism Policy. The Brown Journal of
World Affairs, 22(1), 25-36.
Gartner, W. C. (1994). Image formation process. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 2(2-
3), 191-216.
Giraldi, A., & Cesareo, L. (2014). Destination image differences between frst-time and return
visitors: An exploratory study on the city of Rome. Tourism and Hospitality
Research, 14(4), 197-205. doi:
Hallmann, K., Zehrer, A., & Müller, S. (2015). Perceived Destination Image: An Image Model for
a Winter Sports Destination and Its Effect on Intention to Revisit. Journal of Travel
Research, 54(1), 94-106. doi:10.1177/0047287513513161
Hosany, S., Ekinci, Y., & Uysal, M. (2007). Destination image and destination personality.
International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1(1), 62-81.
Hsiang-Ming, L., Ching-Chi, L., & Cou-Chen, W. (2011). Brand image strategy affects brand
equity after M&A. European Journal of Marketing, 45(7/8), 1091-1111. doi:
Hung, J.-Y., Lin, F.-L., Yang, W.-G., & Lu, K.-S. (2012). Construct the destination impact formation
mdoel of macao: The case of Taiwan tourists to Macao. Tourism and Hospitality
Management, 18(1), 19-35.
Hwang, J., Yoon, Y.-S., & Park, N.-H. (2011). Structural effects of cognitive and affective
reponses to web advertisements, website and brand attitudes, and purchase
intentions: The case of casual-dining restaurants. International Journal of
Hospitality Management, 30(4), 897-907. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.01.011
Javier, H. V. H. (2013). Community development through tourism: Opportunities and
challenges in Burdeos, Philippines (Doctoral dissertation). Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, Hong Kong.
Jha, S. (2017). Amazing Thailand to 'Open to the New Shades' in Tourism Year 2018.
TravelBiz Monitor. Mumbai, Athena Information Solutions Pvt. Ltd.
Ji, S., & Wall, G. (2015). Understanding supply- and demand-side destination image
relationships: The case of Qingdao, China. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 21(2),
205-222. doi: 10.1177/1356766714542189
Jin, N., Lee, H., & Lee, S. (2013). Event Quality, Perceived Value, Destination Image, and
Behavioral Intention of Sports Events: The Case of the IAAF World Championship,
Daegu, 2011. Asia Pacifc Journal of Tourism Research, 18(8), 849-864. doi:
Kaplanidou, K., & Vogt, C. (2007). The Interrelationship between Sport Event and Destination
Image and Sport Tourists' Behaviours. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 12(3-4), 183-
206. doi:10.1080/14775080701736932
Kemp, E., et al. (2012). Place branding: creating self-brand connections and brand advocacy.
The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 21(7), 508-515.
Kim, S., & Park, E. (2015). First-time and repeat tourist destination image: The case of domestic
tourists to Weh Island, Indonesia. Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism &
Hospitality Research, 26(3), 421-433.
Kislali, H., Kavaratzis, M., & Saren, M. (2016). Rethinking destination image formation.
International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(1), 70-
80. doi: 1356766715591870.
Larsen, S. (2007). Aspects of a psychology of the tourist experience. Scandinavian Journal of
Hospitality and Tourism, 7(1), 7-18.
Lawson, F., & Baud-Bovy, M. (1977). Tourism and recreation development: Architectural
Lekaota, L. (2015). The importance of rural communities' participation in the management of
tourism management. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 7(5), 453-462.
Leung, D., Law, R., & Lee, H. A. (2011). The perceived destination image of Hong Kong on The International Journal of Tourism Research, 13(2), 124.
Leung, L. C., Bougoure, U. S., & Miller, K. W. (2014). The effects of affective and utilitarian
brand relationships on brand consideration. Journal of Brand Management, 21(6),
469-484. doi:
Li, J., & Yang, Y. (2015). Describing and testing gender as moderator: illustrated substantively
with a hypothesized relation between image, satisfaction, and behavioural
intentions. Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Research,
26(2), 258-268. doi:10.1080/13032917.2014.939203
Li-Hui, C., Stylos, N., Shih-Shuo, Y., & Yu-Yun, T. (2015). How do Motivation, Pre-Visit Information
Search and Destination Image affect Post-Visit Behavioural Intention? The case of an
island destination. European Journal of Tourism Research, 9, 8-23.
Lin, L.-P. (2017). Industrial tourists' behavioral intention toward slow travel in Taiwan. Journal
of Sustainable Tourism, 25(3), 379-396.
Loi, D. H., & Sentosa, I. (2015). The Image of Vietnam as a Tourism Destination for Malaysian
Tourists. International Journal of Business and Management, 10(1), 258-265.
Loureiro, A. (2014). Did the context of economic crisis affect the image of Portugal as a tourist
destination? Worldwide Hospitality & Tourism Themes, 6(5), 466-469. doi:
Lu, L., Chi, C. G., & Liu, Y. (2015). Authenticity, involvement, and image: Evaluating tourist
experiences at historic districts. Tourism Management, 50, 85-96. doi:
Luan, C.-C. (2016). Feelings of doing good for myself or others: Discussing effects of selfconscious emotions on sustainable consumption. Ann Arbor, Purdue University.
10150383: 116.
Mak, A. K. Y. (2011). An identity-centered approach to place branding: Case of industry
partners' evaluation of Iowa's destination image. Journal of Brand Management,
18(6), 438-450. doi:
Marine-Roig, E. (2015). Identity and authenticity in destination image construction. Anatolia,
26(4), 574-587. doi: 10.1080/13032917.2015.1040814
Matiza, T., & Oni, O. A. (2014). Managing the tourist destination image: The case of Africa.
Tourism (13327461), 62(4), 397-406.
Matthews, D. R. (2012). Swapping styles: An exploration of fashion leadership, brands, and
group membership in the context of clothing swaps. Ann Arbor, The University
of North Carolina at Greensboro. 3549514: 240.
Mehta, J. N., & Heinen, J. T. (2001). Does Community-based conservation shape favorable
attitudes among locals? An empirical Study from Nepal. Environmental
Management, 28(2), 165-177. doi:
Mohaidin, Z., Wei, K. T., & Ali Murshid, M. (2017). Factors influencing the tourists' intention to
select sustainable tourism destination: a case study of Penang, Malaysia.
International Journal of Tourism Cities, 3(4), 442-465.
Moon, K.-S., Ko, Y. J., Connaughton, D. P., & Lee, J.-H. (2013). A mediating role of destination
image in the relationship between event quality, perceived value, and behavioral
i n t e n t i o n . J o u r n a l o f S p o r t & T o u r i s m , 1 8 ( 1 ) , 4 9 - 6 6 .
Murray, A. K. (2012). Factors influencing brand loyalty to craft breweries in North Carolina.
Ann Arbor, East Carolina University. 1518637: 127.
Naidu, S., Chand, A., & Southgate, P. (2014). Determinants of innovation in the handicraft
industry of Fiji and Tonga: an empirical analysis from a tourism perspective. Journal
of Enterprising Communities, 8(4), 318.
Nair, V., & Hamzah, A. (2015). Successful community-based tourism approaches for rural
destinations. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 7(5), 429-439.
Netemeyer, R. G., Krishnan, B., Pullig, C., Wang, G., Yagci, M., Dean, D., . . . Wirth, F. (2004).
Developing and validating measures of facets of customer-based brand equity.
Journal of Business Research, 57(2), 209-224
Nghiêm-Phú, B. (2014). A review of destination image studies from 2008 to 2012. European
Journal of Tourism Research, 8, 35-65.
Oh, H., Assaf, A. G., & Baloglu, S. (2016). Motivations and Goals of Slow Tourism. Journal of
Travel Research, 55(2), 205.
Papadimitriou, D., Apostolopoulou, A., & Kaplanidou, K. (2015). Destination Personality,
Affective Image, and Behavioral Intentions in Domestic Urban Tourism. Journal of
Travel Research, 54(3), 302-315. doi: 10.1177/0047287513516389
Pawlusinski, R., & Kubal, M. (2018). A new take on an old structure? Creative and slow tourism
in Krakow (Poland). Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 16(3), 265-285.
Plaza, B., González-casimiro, P., Moral-zuazo, P., & Waldron, C. (2015). Culture-led city brands
as economic engines: theory and empirics. The Annals of Regional Science, 54(1),
179-196. doi:10.1080/09654313.2013.817543
Prayag, G. (2009). Tourists' evaluations of destination image, satisfaction and future, behavioral
intentions-the case of mauritus. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 26(8), 836-
Prestholdt, R., & Nordbø, I. (2015). Norwegian landscapes: An assessment of the aesthetical
visual dimensions of some rural destinations in Norway. Scandinavian Journal of
Hospitality and Tourism, 15(1-2), 202-222. doi:10.1080/15022250.2015.1014129
Pulido-Fernández, J. I., Andrades-Caldito, L., & Sánchez-Rivero, M. (2015). Is sustainable
tourism an obstacle to the economic performance of the tourism industry?
Evidence from an international empirical study. Journal of Sustainable Tourism,
23(1), 47.
Qu, H., Kim, L. H., & Im, H. H. (2011). A model of destination branding: Integrating the concepts
of the branding and destination image. Tourism Management, 32(3), 465-476. doi:
Rasoolimanesh, S. M., & Jaafar, M. (2016). Residents' perception toward tourism development:
A pre-development perspective. Journal of Place Management and
Development, 9(1), 91-104. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2005.03.001.
Ritchie, J. R. B., & Crouch, G. I. (2010). A model of destination competitiveness/ sustainability:
Brazilian perspectives. Revista de Administração Pública, 44(5), 1049-1066.
Rudez, H. N. (2014). Affective tourism destination image: The case of Portoroz. In Faculty
of tourism and hospitality management in Opatija. Biennial International
Congress. Tourism & Hospitality Industry (pp. 245-255). Rijeka: University of Rijeka.
Russell, J. A. (1991). Culture and the categorization of emotions. Psychological bulletin,
110(3), 426.
Saeedi, H., & Heidarzadeh Hanzaee, K. (2018). The effects of heritage image on destination
branding: an Iranian perspective. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 13(2), 152-166.
Sahin, S., & Baloglu, S. (2011). Brand personality and destination image of Istanbul.
Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Research, 22(1), 69-88.
Saleem, S., Rahman, S. U., & Umar, R. M. (2015). Measuring Customer Based Beverage Brand
Equity: Investigating the Relationship between Perceived Quality, Brand Awareness,
Brand Image, and Brand Loyalty. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 7(1),
San Martín, H., & Rodríguez del Bosque, I. A. (2008). Exploring the cognitive–affective nature of
destination image and the role of psychological factors in its formation. Tourism
Management, 29(2), 263-277. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2007.03.012
Sánchez-Cañizares, S. M., & Castillo-Canalejo, A. M. (2014). Community-based island tourism:
The case of Boa Vista in Cape Verde. International Journal of Culture, Tourism
and Hospitality Research, 8(2), 219-233.
Sardianou, E., Kostakis, I., Mitoula, R., Gkaragkani, V., Lalioti, E., & Theodoropoulou, E. (2016).
Understanding the entrepreneurs' behavioural intentions towards sustainable
tourism: a case study from Greece. Environment, Development and
Sustainability, 18(3), 857-879. doi:
Shukla, P. (2012). The influence of value perceptions on luxury purchase intentions in
developed and emerging markets. International Marketing Review, 29(6), 574-596.
Simons, I., & Groot, E. D.. (2015). Power and empowerment in community-based tourism:
Opening Pandora’s Box? Tourism Review, 70(1), 72-84. doi:10.1108/TR-06-2014-0035
Smith, W. W., Li, X., Pan, B., Witte, M., & Doherty, S. T. (2015). Tracking destination image
across the trip experience with smartphone technology. Tourism Management,
48, 113-122. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2014.04.010
Stepchenkova, S., & Mills, J. E. (2010). Destination Image: A Meta-Analysis of 2000-2007
Research. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 19(6), 575-609. doi:
Su, M. M., Long, Y., Wall, G., & Jin, M. (2016). Tourist-community interactions in ethnic tourism:
Tuva villages, Kanas Scenic Area, China. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change,
14(1), 1-26.
Tasci, A. D. A., Gartner, W. C., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2007). Conceptualization and Operationalization
of destination. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 31(2), 194-223.
Tkaczynski, A., Rundle-Thiele, S. R., & Cretchley, J. (2015). A vacationer-driven approach to
understand destination image: A Leximancer study. Journal of Vacation Marketing,
21(2), 151-162. doi: 10.1177/1356766714567796
Tseng, C., Wu, B., Morrison, A. M., Zhang, J., & Chen, Y.-c. (2015). Travel blogs on China as a
destination image formation agent: A qualitative analysis using Leximancer.
Tourism Management, 46, 347-358. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2014.07.012
Vitic-Cetkovic, A. P., Krstic, B. P., & Jovanovic, I. P. (2015). Improving The Tourist Destination
Image With Intangible Cultural Heritage: Montenegro As A Case Study. Ekonomika,
61(2), 29-37.
Wang, C. Y., & Hsu, M. K. (2010). The relationships of destination image, satisfaction, and
behavioral intentions: An integrated model. Journal of Travel & Tourism
Marketing, 27(8), 829-843.
Woehler, K. (2004). The rediscovery of slowness, or leisure time as one’s own and as selfaggrandizement. In The tourism and leisure industry: Shaping the future (pp. 83-
92). New York: Haworth Hospitality Press
Yacout, O. M., & Hefny, L. I. (2015). Use of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, demographics, and
information sources as antecedents to cognitive and affective destination image for
Egypt. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 21(1), 37-52. doi: 10.1177/1356766714538444
Yamaguchi, S., Akiyoshi, R., Yamaguchi, Y., & Nogawa, H. (2015). Assessing the Effects of Service
Quality, Past Experience, and Destination Image on Behavioral Intentions in the
Spring Training Camp of a Japanese Professional Baseball Team. Journal of
Convention & Event Tourism, 16(3), 228-252. doi: 10.1080/15470148.2015.1043611
Yang, X., & Hung, K. (2014). Poverty alleviation via tourism cooperatives in China: the story of
Yuhu. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(6),
Ye, L., et al. (2012). "Dispelling the collective myth of Chinese consumers: a new generation of
brand-conscious individualists." The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 29(3), 190-
Yu, L. E. I., Hongmei, Z., Feifei, X. U., & Ho-hon, L. (2015). A Cross-cultural Comparison of
Chinese Country Image Perceptions: A Case Study of China, UK and USA University
Students. (English). Tourism Tribune / Lvyou Xuekan, 30(3), 23-34. doi:
Zehrer, A., Raich, F., Siller, H., & Tschiderer, F. (2014). Leadership networks in destinations.
Tourism Review, 69(1), 59-73. doi:10.1108/TR-06-2013-0037
Zhang, H., Fu, X., Cai, L. A., & Lu, L. (2014). Destination image and tourist loyalty: A metaanalysis. Tourism Management, 40, 213-223. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2013.06.006