Travel motivations to visit CBT communities adjacent to national parks in the southern region of Thailand

Main Article Content

Jakkrit Charoensit
Dachanee Emphandhu
Noppawan Tanakanjana Phongkhieo


According to the analysis of the community based tourism (CBT) situation in Thailand, one of the weak points that was identified was the lack of tourist behavior understanding, including travel motivations. This led to development of research questions that seek to know what factors motivate the tourists’ decision making on their visits to CBT communities and also whether there are differences in tourists’ motivations among these study areas. Seven study sites were selected from a synthesis of CBT researches showing the knowledge gaps in communities that operate tourism in the areas adjacent to the national parks. The purposes of this study were: 1) to explore the components of travel motivations among tourists visiting CBT communities adjacent to national parks in the southern region of Thailand, and 2) to compare the travel motivations among the study areas. A four-level rating scale questionnaire was considered as a research instrument for collecting data from a sample size of 980 Thai and foreign tourists. The findings revealed that 1) eight distinct factors explaining 59.97% of the variance emerged from the factor analysis of the 37 motivational items extracted by principal component analysis and rotated by the varimax method. These factors were labeled: (1) physical skill development and self-esteem reinforcement, (2) nature exploration, (3) rest and tranquility, (4) security and comfort, (5) introspection and independence, (6) escape role overloads and crowds, (7) cultural learning and activity variousness, and (8) family togetherness and similar values sharing. 2) Travel motivations among the study areas were significantly different at the level of .05 in five components.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles


Beard, J. G. and Ragheb, M. G. (1983). Measuring leisure motivation. Journal of Leisure Research 15(3): 219-228.

Bejrananda, T. (2016). Travel motivations for visiting ecotourism destinations in border areas of Chiang Rai. Suthiparithat Journal 30(94): 42-59. [in Thai]

Chantayo, R. (2003). A Comparative Study of Motivation and Satisfaction of Visitors to Nature Based and Historical Recreation Areas: A Case Study of Mae Wong National Park and Kamphaeng Phet Historical Park. Master’s Thesis. Kasetsart University, Thailand. [in Thai]

Charoensit, J. and Emphandhu, D. (2018). Analyzing the research gap on community based tourism in Thailand. Damrong Journal of The Faculty of Archaeology Silpakorn University 17(1): 175-203.

Cohen, E. (2003). Backpacking: diversity and change. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change 1(2): 95-110.

Comrey, A. L. and Lee, H. B. (1992). A First Course in Factor Analysis. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Hillsdale.

Crompton, J. L. (1979). Motivation for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research 6(4): 408-424.

Dann, G. (1981). Tourist motivation: an appraisal. Annals of Tourism Research 8(2): 187-219.

DeVellis, R. F. (2017). Scale Development: Theory and Applications. 4th ed. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Emphandhu, D. and Songpornwanich, S. (2013). Community based tourism and protected areas: overview of its challenging issues. In Proceeding of Seminar on Natural Resources Adaptation to the Global Climate Change: Extended Abstracts, pp. 96-100. Bangkok: Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University. July 16.

Emphandhu, D., Wannalert, S. and Rachano, R. (2004). Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS). Bangkok: Tourism Authority of Thailand. [in Thai]

Gray, H. P. (1970). International Travel-International Trade. Lexington: Heath Lexington.

Griethuijsen, R. A. L. F., van Eijck, M. W., Haste, H., den Brok, P. J., Skinner, N. C., Mansour, N., Gencer, A. S. and BouJaoude, S. (2014). Global patterns in students’ views of science and interest in science. Research in Science Education 45(4): 581-603.

Guay, F., Chanal, J., Ratelle, C. F., Marsh, H. W., Larose, S. and Boivin, M. (2010). Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology 80(4): 711-735.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. and Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis. 7th ed. London: Pearson.

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES). (2005). Asia-Pacific Environmental Innovation Strategy Project (APEIS), Research on Innovative and Strategic Policy Options (RISPO), Final Report. Hayama: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.

Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1982). Towards a social psychology theory of tourism motivation: a rejoinder. Annals of Tourism Research 9(2): 256-262.

Jantowat, H., Phongkhieo, N. T. and Kaitpraneet, S. (2011). Responses toward regulations and recreational user management measures of visitors to Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai Province. Thai Journal of Forestry 30(2): 39-47. [in Thai]

Kaewuthai, K. (2012). Experience-based Management of Community Based Ecotourism Sites. Master’s Thesis. Kasetsart University, Thailand. [in Thai]

Kanjanasomranwong, F. (2003). Analysis of Tourists’ Motivation in Choosing Site and Tour Season in Nature-Based Recreation Areas: Case Studies of Doi Inthanon and Khao Yai National Parks. Master’s Thesis. Kasetsart University, Thailand. [in Thai]

Kasikam, K. and Phongkhieo, N. T. (2016). Recreation motivation and factors affecting the decision of tourists in revisiting Huai Mae Khamin waterfall, Khuean Srinagarindra National Park. Veridian E-Journal, Silpakorn University (Humanities, Social Sciences, and Arts) 9(2): 424-437. [in Thai]

Manfredo, M. J., Driver, B. L. and Tarrant, M. A. (1996). Measuring leisure motivation: a meta-analysis of the recreation experience preference scales. Journal of Leisure Research 28(3): 188-213.

Manowaluilou, N., Lertpongrujikorn, N., Vitheepradit, A. and Lertsiri, S. (2015). Behavior and Demands of Tourists for Creative Tourism of Trat Province. Bangkok: National Research Council of Thailand. [in Thai]

Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row.

Mayor, V. (2012). A Study of Motivations and Satisfactions of Tourists Visiting Raksawarin and Pornrang Hot Springs in Ranong province. Master’s Thesis. Dhurakij Pundit University, Thailand.

National Policy Committee for Tourism (NPT). (2016). Thailand Community Based Tourism Development Criteria. Bangkok: National Policy Committee for Tourism. [in Thai]

Nunnally, J. C. and Bernstein, I. (1994). Psychometric Theory. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS Survival Manual: A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis Using IBM SPSS. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.

Park, D. B. and Yoon, Y. S. (2009). Segmentation by motivation in rural tourism: a Korean case study. Tourism Management 30: 99-108.

Pearce, P. L. (1988). The Ulysses Factor: Evaluating Visitors in Tourist Settings. New York: Springer Verlag.

Pearce, P. L. and Caltabiano, M. L. (1983). Inferring travel motivation from travelers’ experiences. Journal of Travel Research 22(2): 16-20.

Pearce, P. L. and Lee, U. I. (2005). Developing the travel career approach to tourist motivation. Journal of Travel Research 43(3): 226-237.

Phumalee, U. (2005). Analysis of Recreation Diversity in Nature-based Recreation Areas. Master’s Thesis. Kasetsart University, Thailand. [in Thai]

Plog, S. C. (1974). Why destination areas rise and fall in popularity. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 14(4): 55-58.

Rewtrakunphaiboon, W. (2009). Tourism motivation research: problems and suggestions. In Annual of International Thai Tourism Journal 2008, edited by T. Choibamroong, pp. 361-368. Bangkok: Thailand Tourism Development Research Institute.

Stein, T. V., Denny, C. B. and Pennisi, L. A. (2003). Using visitors’ motivations to provide learning opportunities at water-based recreation areas. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 11(5): 404-425.

Suansri, P. (2017). Community based tourism. Tourism Economic Review 7: 54-67.

Suansri, P. and Yeejaw-haw, S. (2013). Community Based Tourism (CBT) Standard Handbook, translated by P. Richards. Bangkok: Wanida Karnpim Limited Partnership.

Sukur, N., Johari, M. H. Y., Nazari, Z. A., Wasilan, N. H. M. and Fazil, F. (2018). Desired Recreation Experience of Visitors in Forest Setting. In Proceeding of International Conference on Entrepreneurship, Business and Tourism (ICEBT, 2018), pp. 72-85. Putrajaya: Malaysia. April 28-19.

Taber, K. S. (2018). The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Research in Science Education 48: 1273-1296.

Tanakanjana, N., Arunpraparut, W., Pongpattananurak, N., Nuampukdee, R. and Chumsangsri, T. (2006). Decision Support System for Sustainable Management Planning of Nature-based Recreation Areas in Thailand Phase I. Bangkok: Kasetsart University. [in Thai]

The ASEAN Secretariat. (2016). ASEAN Community Based Tourism Standard. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.

Whiting, J. W., Larson, L. R., Green, G. T. and Kralowec, C. (2017). Outdoor recreation motivation and site preferences across diverse racial/ethnic groups: a case study of Georgia state parks. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism 18: 10-21.

Xu, J. B. and Chan, S. (2016). A new nature-based tourism motivation model: Testing the moderating effects of the push motivation. Tourism Management Perspectives 18: 107-110.