Main Article Content
This paper presents a study aiming to develop thermal comfort zones for Thai senior citizens in the government’s senior community centers. ASHRAE scale was used to evaluate the thermal sensation vote (TSV) of older adults. This study was conducted in cold and hot seasons in Phitsanulok City, Thailand by using both field and climate chamber studies. The field survey was conducted in 3 senior community centers. One hundred and two copies of the thermal comfort questionnaire were issued in winter and 90 copies in summer. The occupants in all 3 senior community centers were selected for the climate chamber study. Then 30 respondents were arranged to experience 144 various thermal conditions. Linear regression model of TSV and thermal variables were developed. The results showed that the mean of TSV and thermal comfort zones of Thai senior citizens differed from Franger’s PMV and ASHRAE’s comfort zones. Moreover, due to different clothing insulation between cold season (0.64 clo) and hot season (0.50 clo), the comfort zones of both seasons (at activities 1.1-1.2 met) were found different. To conclude this, in still air (0-0.05 m/s), the preferred indoor thermal environment for senior community buildings in the cold season is a combination of 25.0-27.2°C operative temperature and 49-75% relative humidity. In the hot season, the preferred condition is slightly warmer and less humid at 26.4-29.7°C operative temperature and 47-70% relative humidity. The findings can be used to set standards of operation and design of the country’s senior community centers in order to provide more comfortable indoor conditions and save energy.
All rights reserved. Apart from citations for the purposes of research, private study, or criticism and review,no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any other form without prior written permission by the publisher.
Aekplakorn, W., Pakcharoen, H., Thaikla, K. and Satheannoppakao, W. (2014). Thai National Health Examination Survey, NHES V. Nonthaburi: Health Systems Research Institute (HSRI). [in Thai]
Alfano, F. R. D., Olesen, B. W. Palella, B. I. and Riccio, G. (2014). Thermal comfort: design and assessment for energy saving. Energy and Buildings 81: 326-336. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.06.033] accessed on September 12, 2019.
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). (2009). Thermal Comfort. In 2009 ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals, edited by ASHRAE Research, pp. 1-30. Atlanta: ASHRAE.
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). (2017). ASHRAE Standard-55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. Atlanta: ASHRAE.
Anuurad, E., Shihnwaku, K., Nogi, A., Kitajima, K., Enkhmaa, B., Shimono, K. and Yamane, Y. (2003). The new BMI criteria for Asians by the region office for the West Pacific region of WHO are suitable for screening of overweight to prevent metabolic syndrome in elder Japanese workers. Journal of Occupational Health 45: 335-343. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1539/joh.45.335] accessed on May 8, 2019.
Assavavichai, K., Netipongpiroj, A. and Sreshthaputra, A. (2015). Thermal comfort preference of elderly in Thailand. Paper presented at Science, Genetic Engineering, Architecture and Engineering, Agro – Industry, Natural Resources and Environment: Proceedings of the 53rd Kasetsart University Annual Conference, pp. 656-664. Bangkok: The Thailand Research Fund. February 3-6. [Online URL: https://kukr.lib.ku.ac.th/proceedings/KUCON/search_detail/dowload_digital_file/315499/54565] accessed on November 11, 2021. [in Thai]
Blatteis, C. M. (2012). Age-dependent changes in temperature regulation – a mini review. Gerontology 58(4): 289-295. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1159/000333148] accessed on December 20, 2019.
Cannon, B. and Nedergaard, J. (2004). Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiological Reviews 84: 277-359.
Center for the Built Environment (CBE). (2019). CBE Thermal Comfort Tool. [Online URL: https://comfort.cbe.berkeley.edu] accessed on February 4, 2019.
Du Bois, D. and Du Bois, E. F. (1916). A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known. Archived Intern Medicine 17: 863-871.
Fanger, P. O. (1972). Thermal Comfort: Analysis and Applications in Environmental Engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Foundation of Thai Gerontology Research and Development Institute. (2014). The Population Aging in Thailand. In Situation of the Thai Elderly 2013, edited by P. Prasartkul and others, pp. 28-34. Bangkok: Amarin Printing and Publishing. [in Thai]
Graja, A. and Schulz, T. J. (2015). Mechanisms of aging-related impairment of brown adipocyte development and function. Gerontology 61: 211-217. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1159/000366557] accessed on March 12, 2020.
Guedes, M. C., Matias, L. and Santos, C. P. (2009). Thermal comfort criteria and building design: field work in Portugal. Renewable Energy 34(11): 2357-2361. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2009.03.004] accessed on May 15, 2018.
Hoof, J. V. and Hensen, J. (2006). Thermal comfort and older adults. Gerontechnology 4(4): 223-228. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.4017/gt.2006.04.04.006.00] accessed on July 13, 2018.
Humphreys, M. A. and Nicol, J. F. (2002) The validity of ISO – PMV for predicting comfort votes in every-day thermal environments. Energy and Buildings 34: 667-684. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(02)00018-X] accessed on December 20, 2017.
Hwang, R. L. and Chen, C. P. (2010). Field study on behaviors and adaptation of elderly people and their thermal comfort requirements in residential environments. Indoor Air 20: 235-245. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0668.2010.00649.x.] accessed on December 20, 2017.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). (2005). ISO 7730: Ergonomics of the Thermal Environment – Analytical Determination and Interpretation of Thermal Comfort Using Calculation of PMV and PPD Indices and Local Thermal Comfort Criteria. Geneva: ISO.
Jitkajornwanich, K. (2001). New concept on thermal comfort research. NAJUA: Architecture, Design and Built Environment 18: 175-181. [in Thai]
Lewis, A. (2015). Designing for an imagined user: provision for thermal comfort in energy-efficient extra-care housing. Energy Policy 84: 204-212. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2015.04.003] accessed on May 15, 2018.
Mendes, A., Pereira, C., Mendes, D. Aguiar, L., Neves, P., Silva, S., Batterman, S. and Teixeira, J. P. (2013). Indoor air quality and thermal comfort-results of a pilot study in elderly care centers in Portugal. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 76(4-5): 333-344. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2013.757213] accessed on April 15, 2020.
Mishra, A. K., Loomans, M. G. L. C. and Hensen, J. L. M. (2016). Thermal comfort of heterogeneous and dynamic indoor conditions – an overview. Building and Environment 109: 82-100. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.09.016] accessed on April 15, 2020.
Mishra, A. K. and Ramgopal, M. (2013). Field studies on human thermal comfort – an overview. Build and Environment 64: 94-106. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.05.024] accessed on April 15, 2020.
Nuttall, F. Q. (2015). Body mass index - obesity, BMI, and health: a critical review. Nutrition Today 50(3): 117-128. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1097/NT.0000000000000092] accessed on March 15, 2020.
Ormandy, D. and Ezratty, V. (2012). Health and thermal comfort: from WHO guidance to housing strategies. Energy Policy 49: 116-121. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.09.003] accessed on April 12, 2020.
Pallant, J. (2001). SPSS Survival Manual: A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS. 5th ed. London: Open University Press.
Rangsiraksa, P. (2006). Thermal comfort in Bangkok residential buildings, Thailand. Paper presented at Passive and Low Energy Architecture (PLEA): Proceedings of the 23rd Conference. Geneva: PLEA. September 6-8. [Online URL: http://web5.arch.cuhk.edu.hk/server1/staff1/edward/www/plea2018/plea/2006/Vol2/PLEA2006_PAPER234.pdf] accessed on July 13, 2018.
Schellen, L., Lichtenbelt, W. D. V. M., Loomans, M. G. L. C., Toftum, J. and De Wit, M. H. (2010). Differences between young adults and elderly in thermal comfort, productivity, and thermal physiology in response to moderate temperature drift and a steady-state condition. Indoor Air 20: 273-283. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0668.2010.00657.x] accessed on July 14, 2018.
Schosserer, M., Grillari, J., Wolfrum, C. and Scheideler, M. (2018). Age-induced changes in white, brite, and brown adipose depots: a mini-review. Gerontology 64(3): 229-236. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1159/000485183] accessed on April 15, 2019.
The Department of Older Persons (DOP). (2019). Statistics of the Elderly in Thailand 77 by December 31, 2019. [Online URL: http://www.dop.go.th/download/knowledge/th1550973505-153_0.pdf] accessed on January 27, 2020. [in Thai]
The National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB). (2017). Phitsanulok City Manucipality: Project for Promoting Sustainability in Future City of Thailand (SFCI). Phitsanulok: NESDB.
The Thai Meteorological Department (TMD). (2019). Climatological Data. [Online URL: https://tmd.go.th] accessed on June 2, 2019.
Touhy, T. A. and Jett, K. F. (2016). Ebersole & Hess' Toward Healthy Aging: Human Needs and Nursing Response. 9th ed. Saint Louis: Mosby Elsevier.
Tsuzuki, K. and Iwata, T. (2002). Thermal Comfort and Thermoregulation for Elderly People Taking Light Exercise. In Indoor Air Quality and Climate: Proceeding of the 9th International Conference, edited by H. Nevin, pp. 647-652. Herndon: International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ).
Wang, Y., Groot, R. D., Bakker, F., Wörtche, H. J. and Leemans, R. (2017). Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus. International Journal of Biometeorology 61: 87-101. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-016-1193-0] accessed on May 15, 2018.
Yang, L., Yan, H. and Lam, J. C. (2014). Thermal comfort and building energy consumption implications – a review. Applied Energy 115: 164-173. [Online URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.10.062] accessed on May 2, 2018.
Yimprayoon, C. (2016). Review article: zero energy building. Journal of Architectural/Planning Research and Studies 13(2): 1-30. [in Thai]