Main Article Content
Those categorised in the transgender group are more likely to experience discrimination at workplace due to their opposing gender identity from the norms and cultures practised in Malaysia. This marginal group has often been forced to quit their jobs when their employers become aware of the sexually expressions and gender identity displayed by the transgender community, which have been perceived to affect the good reputation and image of the workplace organisation. As such, this study assessed the effects of psychosocial discrimination on this marginal population at workplace when their physical transition appearance took place. The study outcomes indicated that most of the respondents experienced discrimination even prior to employment during job interview. Several incidences of bullying behaviours were exerted on the respondents by other staff members as a consequence of rejection towards the gender identity held by the respondents. Hence, this study suggests that both government and non-governmental organisations to take the initiative to provide employment opportunities to the transgender population in Malaysia, so as to hinder this marginal population from succumbing to the sex industry.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
All rights reserved. Apart from citations for the purposes of research, private study, or criticism and review,no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any other form without prior written permission by the publisher.
Barclay, J. M. and Scott, L. J. (2006). Transsexuals and workplace diversity: An case of change management. Personnel Review 35(4): 487-502.
Bockting, W. O., Miner, M. H., Swinburne, R. E., Hamilton, A. and Coleman, E. (2013). Stigma, mental health, and resilience in an online sample of the US transgender population. American Journal of Public Health 103: 943-951.
Bogdan, R. and Biklen, S. K. (2007). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods. 5th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Boles, J. and Elifson, K. W. (1994). The social organization of transvestite prostitution and AIDS. Social Science and Medicine 39(1): 85-93.
Creswell, J. W. (2010). Mapping the developing landscape of mixed methods research. In SAGE Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioural Research, edited by A. Tashakkori and C. Teddlie, pp. 45-68. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). Introduction: the discipline and practice of qualitative research. In the Sage handbook of qualitative research, edited by N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln, pp. 1-32. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Edney, R. (2004). To keep me safe from harm? transgender prisoners and the experience of imprisonment. Deakin Law Review 9: 327-338.
Fassinger, R. Y. (2005). Paradigms, praxis, problems, and promise: grounded theoryin counseling psychology research. Journal of Counselling Psychology 52: 156-166.
Gedro, J., Mizzi, R. C., Rocco, T. S. and van Loo, J. (2013). Going global: professional mobility and concerns for LGBT workers. Human Resource Development International 16(3): 282-297.
Grant J, Mottet L. and Tanis J. (2011). Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. [Online URL: https://www.transequality.org/sites/default/files/docs/resources/NTDS_Report.pdf] accessed on December 20, 2019.
Hill, D. B. and Willoughby, B. L. B. (2005). The development and validation of the genderism and transphobia scale. Sex Roles 53: 531-544.
Human Rights Watch. (2014). I’m Scared to Be A Woman: Human Rights Abuses Against Transgender People in Malaysia. [Online URL: https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/malaysia0914_ForUpload.pdf] accessed on December 20, 2019.
Iphofen, R. (2016). Ethical Decision Making in Social Research: A Practical Guide. New York: Springer.
Irwin, J. (2002). Discrimination against gay men, lesbians, and transgender people working in education. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services 14(2): 65-77.
Kenagy, G. P. and Bostwick, W. B. (2005). Health and social service needs of transgender people in Chicago. International Journal of Transgenderism 8(2/3): 57-66.
Kirk, J. and Belovics, R. (2008). Understanding and counselling transgender clients. Journal of Employment Counselling 45: 29-39.
Lambda Legal and Deloitte Financial Advisory Services LLP. (2006). 2006-2005 Work Place Fairness Survey. [Online URL: http://data.lambdalegal.org/pdf/641.pdf] accessed on December 20, 2019.
Law, C. L., Martinez, L. R., Ruggs, E. N., Hebl, M. R. and Akers, E. (2011). Trans-parency in the workplace: How the experiences of transsexual employees can be improved. Journal of Vocational Behavior 79(3): 710-723.
McPhail, R., McNulty, Y. and Hutchings, K. (2016). Lesbian and gay expatriation: opportunities, barriers and challenges for global mobility. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 27(3): 382-406.
Minter, S. and Daley, C. (2003). Trans Realities: A Legal Needs Assessment of San Francisco’s Transgender Communities. [Online URL: http://www.transgenderlawcenter.org/trans/pdfs/Trans%20Realities%
20Final%20Fildf] accessed on December 20, 2019.
Mizock, L. and Lewis, T. (2008). Trauma in transgender populations: risk, resilience, and clinical care. Journal of Emotional Abuse 8(3): 335-354.
Nemoto, T., Bodeker, B. and Iwamoto, M. (2011). Social support, exposure to violence, and transphobia: correlates of depression among male-to-female transgender women with a history of sex work. American Journal of Public Health 101: 1980-1988.
Nemoto, T., Operario, J., Keatley, J. and Villegas, D. (2004). Social context of HIV risk behaviours among male-to-female transgenders of colour. AIDS Care 16(6): 724-735.
Out and Equal Workplace Advocates, Witeck-Combs Communications and Harris Interactive. (2003). Gays and Lesbians Face Persistent Workplace Discrimination and Hostility Despite Improved Policies and Attitudes in Corporate America. Rochester: HarrisInteractive.com.
Petersen, M., Stephens, J., Dickey, R. and Lewis W. (1996). Transsexuals within the prison system: An international survey of correctional services policies. Behavioral Sciences and the Law 14: 219-229.
Reisner, S. L., Bailey, Z. and Sevelius, J. (2014). Racial/ethnic disparities in history of incarceration, experiences of victimization, and associated health indicators among transgender women in the U.S. Women & Health 54(8): 750-767.
Risser, J. M. H., Shelton, A., McCurdy, S., Atkinson, J., Padgett, P., Useche, B., Thomas, B. and Williams, M. (2005). Sex, drugs, violence, and HIV status among male-to-female transgender persons in Houston, Texas. International Journal of Transgenderism 8(2-3): 67-74.
Rodriquez-Madera, S. and Toro-Alfonso, J. (2005). Gender as an obstacle in HIV/AIDS prevention: considerations for the development of HIV/AIDS prevention efforts for male-to-female transgenders. International Journal of Transgenderism 8(2/3): 113-122.
Schepel, E. (2011). A Comparative Study of Adult Transgender and Female Prostitution. Doctoral dissertation. Arizona State University, USA.
Schilt, K. and Wiswall, M. (2008). Before and after: gender transitions, human capital, and workplace experiences. The B. E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy 8(1): 1-26.
Sperber, J., Landers, S. and Lawrence, S. (2005). Access to health care for transgendered persons: results of a needs assessment in Boston. International Journal of Transgenderism 8(2/3): 75-92.
Sugano, E., Nemoto T. and Operario, D. (2006). The impact of exposure to transphobia on HIV risk behavior in a sample of transgender women of color in San Francisco. AIDS and Behavior 10(2): 217-225.
Suriyasarn, B. (2015). PRIDE at Work: A Study on Discrimination at Work on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Thailand. Geneva: ILO.
UNDP and ILO (2018). LGBTI People and Employment: Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Expression, and Sex Characteristics in China, the Philippines and Thailand. [Online URL: http://www.asia-pacific.undp.org/content/rbap/en/home/library/democratic_governance/hiv_aids/lgbti-people-and-employment--discriminationbased-on-sexual-orie.html] accessed on December 20, 2019.
Wessler, S. (2005). Discrimination Against Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Individuals in Maine. Portland: Center for the Prevention of Hate Violence.
Winter, S., Davis-McCabe, C., Russell, C., Wilde, D., Chu, T. H., Suparak, P. and Wong, J. (2018). Denied Work: An Audit of Employment Discrimination on the Basis of Gender Identity in Asia. Bangkok: Asia Pacific Transgender Network and United Nations Development Programme.
Witten, T. M. and Eyler, A. E. (2007). Transgender aging and the care of the elderly transgendered patient. In Principles of Transgender Medicine and Surgery, edited by R. Ettner, S. Monstrey, and A. E. Eyler, pp. 343–372. New York: Haworth Press.
Xavier, J. (2000). The Washington, DC. Transgender Needs Assessment Survey Final Report for Phase Two. [Online URL: http://www.gender.org/resources/dge/gea01011.pdf] accessed on December 20, 2019.
Xavier, J. M., Bobbin, M., Singer, B. and Budd, E. (2005). A needs assessment of transgendered people of color living in Washington, DC. International Journal of Transgenderism 8(2/3): 31-48.
Xavier, J., Hannold, J. A. and Bradford, J. B. (2007). The Health, Health-Related Needs, and Life Course Experiences of Transgender Virginians. Richmond: Virginia Department of Health.