Main Article Content
Increasingly, education in all levels in many institutions moves toward societal accountability mechanisms through reforms in assessment practices. Unless teacher’s assessment literacy is understood, how assessment practices influence students’ study strategies and learning processes remains a phenomenon. This study investigated the level of assessment literacy among junior high school level (Grade 7-10) teachers (n=241) in the Philippines. It also examined how teachers’ attributes affect their level of assessment literacy. The 35-item assessment literacy inventory and Item Facility (IF) index were used. General Linear Model (GLM) was done to predict teacher’s literacy level. Results showed that overall, the Grade 7-10 teachers have a “midlevel” literacy in assessment (M ± SEM = 17.15 ± 0.24). Teachers are most literate on “Developing assessment methods” while they are least literate on “Communicating assessment results.” Teachers desire to develop innovative forms of assessments for formative and summative classroom purposes but deterrence on communicating results of assessment to the students and parents suggest an uneven intention and conception of assessment for school accountability purposes. The Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences teachers were outperformed by the Mathematics and Science teachers based on their scores in the test. Mathematics and Science teachers are more literate in assessment than the other teachers. Among the categorical predictors, only the teacher’s content area could predict the teachers’ assessment literacy level. The findings point to teachers’ mixed understanding that assessment of student learning is an essential component of effective educational accountability system.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
All rights reserved. Apart from citations for the purposes of research, private study, or criticism and review,no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any other form without prior written permission by the publisher.
Alkharusi, H., Aldhafri, S., Alnabhani, H. and Alkalbani, M. (2014) Educational Assessment Profile of Teachers in the Sultanate of Oman. International Education Studies 7(5): 116-137.
Alkharusi, H., Aldhafri, S., Alnabhani, H. and Alkalbani, M. (2012) Educational assessment attitudes, competence, knowledge, and practices: An exploratory study of Muscat teachers in the Sultanate of Oman. Journal of Education and Learning 1: 217-232.
Aydeniz, M. and Brown, L. C. (2010) Enhancing pre-service elementary school teacher’s understanding of essential science concepts through a reflective conceptual change model. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education 2(2): 305-326.
Biggs, J. B. and Tang, C. (2007) Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does. Buckingham: The Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press.
Boud, D. and Falchikov, N. (2006) Aligning assessment with long-term learning. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 31: 399-413.
Brantley, D. K. (2006) Meaningful Assessment Promotes Meaningful Learning. Wisdom in Education 2(1): 1-5.
Bringula, R. P., Balcoba, A.C., Alfaro, L. E. and Merritt, J. (2019) Managing the Perceived Impact of K to 12 Implementation on Academic Staff Tenure and Financial Stability: Evidence from Five Higher Education Institutions in the Philippines. Educational Research for Policy and Practice 18(2): 181-200.
Brown, G., Bull, J. and Pendleburry, M. (1997) Assessing student learning in higher education. London: Routledge.
Cimer, S. O., Cakir, I. and Cimer, A. (2010) Teachers’ Views on the Effectiveness of In-Service Courses on The New Curriculum in Turkey. European Journal of Teacher Education 33: 31-41.
Cohen, J. (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: Routledge Academic.
Duncan, C. and Noonan, B. (2007) Factors affecting teachers’ grading and assessment practices. Journal of Educational Research 53(1): 1-21.
Eley, M. E. (2006) Teachers’ conceptions of teaching, and the making of specific decisions in planning to teach. Higher Education 51: 191-214.
Fulmer, G. W. Tan, K. H. K. and Lee, I. C. H. (2019) Relationships among Singaporean Secondary Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment and School and Policy Contextual Factors. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice 26(2): 166-183.
Gijbels, D., Segers, M. and Struyf, E. (2008) Constructivist learning environments and the (im)possibility to change students’ perceptions of assessment demands and approaches to learning. Instructional Science 36: 431-443.
Gross, R., Mcllveen, R., Coolican, H., Clamp, A. and Russell, J. (2000) Psychology: A New Introduction for A Level. 2nd Ed. Spain: Hodder and Stoughton Educational.
Gullikson, A. R. (1984) Teacher perspectives of their instructional use of tests. Journal of Educational Research 77(4): 244-248.
Heick, T. (2018) The Difference Between Assessment of Learning and Assessment for Learning. [Online URL: https://www.teachthought.com/pedagogy/the-difference-between-assessment-of-learning-and-assessment-for-learning/] accessed on September 20, 2019.
Heider, F. (1958) The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: Wiley.
Jones, E. E. and Davis, K. E. (1965) From acts to dispositions: The attribution process in person perception. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, edited by Berkowitz, L., Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press.
Kember, D. and Kwan, K. (2000) Lecturers’ approaches to teaching and their relationship to conceptions of good teaching. Instructional Science 28: 469-490.
Lee, H. S., Coomes, J. and Yim, J. (2019) Teachers' Conceptions of Prior Knowledge and the Potential of a Task in Teaching Practice. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education 22(2): 129-151.
Lindblom-Ylänne, S., Trigwell, K., Nevgi, A. and Ashwin, P. (2006) How approaches to teaching are affected by discipline and teaching context. Studies in Higher education 31(3): 285-298.
Lueddeke, G. R. (2003) Professionalising teaching practice in higher education: A study of disciplinary variation and teaching-scholarship. Studies in Higher Education 28(2): 213-228.
McClam, S. and Sevier, B. (2010) Troubles with grades, grading, and change: Learning from adventures in alternative assessment practices in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education 26(7): 1460-1470.
McGinn, M. K. and Roth, W. M. (1998) Assessing students' understandings about levers: Better test instruments are not enough. International Journal of Science Education 20: 813-832.
Parpala, A. and Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2007) University teachers’ conceptions of good teaching in the units of high-quality education. Studies in Educational Evaluation 33: 355-370.
Plake, B. S. and Impara, J. (1996) Teacher Assessment Literacy: What do teachers know about assessment? Handbook of Classroom Assessment: Learning, Achievement, and Adjustment. (pp. 53-68). London: Academic Press.
Postareff, L. and Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2008) Variation in teachers’ descriptions of teaching-Broadening the understanding of teaching in higher education. Learning and Instruction 18(2): 109-120.
Postareff, L., Virtanen, V., Katajavuori, N. and Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2012) Academics’ conceptions of assessment and their assessment practices. Studies in Educational Evaluation 38(3-4): 84-92.
Prosser., M., Ramsden, P., Trigwell, K. and Martin, E. (2003) Dissonance in experience ofteaching and its elation to the quality of student learning. Studies in Higher Education 28: 37-48.
Ramsden, P. (2003) Learning to teach in higher education (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Remesal, A. (2011) Primary and secondary teachers’ conceptions of assessment: A qualitative study. Teaching and Teacher Education 27: 472-482.
Roth, W. M. and McGinn, M. K. (1998) >unDELETE science education:/lives/work/ voices. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 35(4): 399-421.
Rowe, J. (2012) Assessment as Learning. [Online URL: http://etec.ctlt.ubc.ca/510wiki/Assessment_as_Learning] accessed on September 20, 2019.
Seden, K. and Svaricek, R. (2018) Teacher Subjectivity Regarding Assessment: Exploring English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment Theories That Influence Student Learning. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal 8(3): 119-139.
Segers, M. and Tillema, H. (2011) How do Dutch secondary teachers and students conceive the purpose of assessment? Studies in Educational Evaluation 37: 49-54.
Segers, M., Dochy, F. and Cascallar, E. (Eds.). (2003) Optimising new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Stiggins, R. J. and Conklin, N. F. (1992) In teachers’ hands: Investigating the practices of classroom assessment. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Struyven, K., Dochy, F. and Janssens, S. (2003) Students’ perceptions about new modes of assessment in higher education: A review. In Optimising new modes of assessment: In search of qualities and standards, edited by Segers, M., Dochy, F. and Cascallar, E., pp. 171-223. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Struyven, K., Dochy, F. and Janssens, S. (2005) Students' Perceptions about Evaluation and Assessment in Higher Education: A Review. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 30(4): 325-341.
Thompson, B. and Levitov, J. E. (1985) Using microcomputers to score and evaluate test items. Collegiate Microcomputer 3: 163-168.
Wood, D. A. (1960) Test construction: Development and interpretation of achievement tests. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill Books, Inc.
Zhang, Z. (1995). Investigating teachers’ self-perceived assessment practices and assessment competencies on the Assessment Practices Inventory. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Tuscaloosa, AL: The University of Alabama.
Zhang, Z., Burry-Stock, J. A. (2003) Classroom assessment practices and teachers’ self-perceived assessment skills. Applied Measurement in Education 16: 323-342.