An Analysis of the Teacher’s and the Blind Student’s Needs toward an English Instruction for the Blind in Thai Context

Main Article Content

Arnon Jannok
Suksan Suppasetseree


Normally sighted individuals who have studied English may encounter difficulties and problems in multiple linguistic skills e.g. listening, speaking, reading, writing, and vocabulary. They are also main tribulations for people with visual loss. This study set out to conduct a needs analysis to examine the teacher’s and the blind’s needs toward an English instruction for the blind. A qualitative methodological approach was utilized to collect data from the teachers and the blind students at the Nakhon Ratchasima School for the Blind and the Khon Kaen School for the Blind. The two research instruments used in the current study were a semi-structured interview and class observation. Concerning the participants, five blind students and five teachers teaching the blind were selected for this study. The six-question items were utilized to elicit information about the problems, the desire, or the needs for English language teaching and learning. Additionally, a class observation was implemented to explore the learning environment. The findings indicated that the teachers had desires in enhancing the blind’s listening ability while the blind would like to practice more on speaking. However, the analysis of the qualitative data revealed that they encountered two main problems which were: instructional materials and learning time constraints.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles


Adler, R. B., Rosenfeld, L. B. and Proctor, R. (2004) Interplay: The Process of Interpersonal Communicating. New York: Oxford University Press.

Aiazzi, A. M. (2008) Teaching English to Blind and Visually Impaired Pupils. Humanizing Language Teaching. [Online URL:] accessed on July 28, 2019.

Ainin, I. K. (2016) Identification the Obstacle in Implementation of Inclusive Education in East Java to Support East Java as an Inclusive Province. Paper Presented at the International Conference on Educational Research (ICER) 2016, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand. November 12-13.

Akyel, A. S. and Ozek, Y. (2010) A Language Needs Analysis Research at an English Medium University in Turkey. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 2(2): 969-975.

Albassri, I. A. (2016) Needs-Analysis-Informed Teaching for English for Specific Purposes. Master’s Dissertation. California State University, San Bernardino. [Online URL:
801.pdf] accessed on July 25, 2019.

American Foundation for the Blind. (n.d.) Screen Readers. [Online URL:] accessed on July 25, 2019.

Araluce, H. A. (2002) Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Blind and Visually Impaired Young Learners: The Affective Facto. Doctoral Dissertation. Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain.

ASEAN, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (2008) The ASEAN Charter. Jakarta: Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

Aslantas, T. K. (2017) Foreign Language Education of Visually Impaired Individuals: A Review of Pervasive Studies. Inlara Journal of Educational Research 2(2): 95-104.

Baig, M. (2012) Needs Analysis of Second Language Learn¬ers with Particular regard to their Writing Skills. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (JHSS) 3(1): 15-24.

Brown, H. D. (1994) Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents.

Brown, J. D. (1995) The Elements of Language Curriculum: A Systematic Approach to Program Development. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Brown, J. D. (2009) Foreign and Second Language Needs Analysis. In The Handbook of Language Teaching, edited by M. H. Long and C. J. Doughty, pp. 269-293. London, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Brown, J. (2016) Introducing Needs Analysis and English for Specific Purposes. London: Routledge.

Committee of Promotion and Development of Life Quality of Disabled Persons. (n.d.) National Persons with Disabilities’ Quality of Life Development Plan (Volume 5) B.E. 2560-2564 (2017-2021). [Online URL:] accessed on October 17, 2018. [In Thai]

Creswell, J. W. (2007) Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Traditions. 2nd ed. California, USA: SAGE Publications.

Cutsforth, T. (1951) The Blind in School and Society. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

Dokecki, P. R. (1966) Verbalism and the Blind: A Critical Review of the Concept of the Literature. Exceptional Children 32(8): 525-530.

Educational Media Center for Disabled. (2005) A Study on the State and Needs of Educational Media of the Blind Students of Lower Secondary Schools in Bangkok and Its Vicinities. [Online URL:
Braille-new/?q=content] accessed on October 20, 2016. [In Thai]

Efstathiou, A. and Polichronopoulou, S. (2015) Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Visually Impaired Students: Teaching Materials Used by Teachers of English. In Enabling Access for Persons with Visual Impairment: Proceedings of the International Conference ICEAPVI 2015, edited by G. Kouroupetroglou, pp. 67-75. [Online URL:] accessed on October 1, 2018.

European Commission (n.d.) Teaching the Blind Foreign Language: A Series of Special Education Teaching Guides. [Online URL:] accessed on July 25, 2019.

Flowerdew, L. (2018) Needs Analysis for the Second Language Writing Classroom. In The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, edited by John I. Liontas, pp. 1-6. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

FreedomScientific. (n.d.) JAWS Screen Reader - Best in Class [Website]. [Online URL:] accessed on July 23, 2019.

Hallahan, D. P. and Kauffman, J. M. (1988) Exceptional Children: Introduction to Special Education. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. [Online URL:] accessed on April 24, 2017.

Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M. and Pullen, P. C. (2014) Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education. Harlow: Pearson.

Harley, R. K. (1963) Verbalism Among Blind Children: An Investigation and Analysis. Research Series, No 10. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

Hersh, M. A. and Johnson, M. A. (2008) Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired and Blind People. London: Springer Verlag.

Hub, A., Diepstraten, J. and Ertl, T. (2005) Learning Foreign Languages by Using a New Type of Orientation Assistant for the Blind. Paper Presented at the International Council for Education of People with Visual Impairment European Conference, Chemnitz, Germany. August 14-18.

Kanoksilapatham, B., Poonpon, K. and Khamkhong, S. (2016) Global English Enhancement and Regional Thainess Maintenance Using Community-based Instructional Innovation. Lecture notes presented at English Teaching in Regional Context, 28 May, 2016. Centara Hotel & Convention Centre Khon Kaen, Khon Kaen.

Kaufmann, S. (2015) 5 Ways to Learn a New Language Better. [Online URL:] accessed on June 19, 2016.

Kaufmann, S. (2016) Listening Comprehension - An Important Language Skill. [Online URL:] accessed on June 19, 2016.

Kearney, G. (2011) DAISY: What is it and Why Use it? [Online URL:] accessed on July 26, 2019.

Lewis, A. and Norwich, B. (2004) Special Teaching for Special Children? Pedagogies for Inclusion: A Pedagogy for Inclusion. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Li, J. (2014) Literature Review of the Classifications of ‘Needs’ in Needs Analysis Theory. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies 2(3): 12-16.

Long, H. M. (2005) Second Language Needs Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Matusky, R. (2018) Needs Assessment vs. Needs Analysis  - What’s the Difference?. [Online URL:] accessed on April 12, 2017.

Milian, M. and Pearson, V. (2005) Students with Visual Impairments in a Dual-language Program: A Case Study. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB) 99(11): 1-13.

Mobility International USA. (n.d.) Teaching Languages to Blind and Visually Impaired Students. [Online URL:] accessed on July 25, 2019.

Nation, I. S. P. (2001) Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nolan, C. and Ashcroft, S. (1969) The Visually Handicapped. Review of Educational Research 39: 52-70.

Noom-ura, S. (2013) English-Teaching Problems in Thailand and Thai Teachers’ Professional Development Needs. English Language Teaching 6(11): 139-147.

Office of the Education Council, Ministry of Education. (2017) Education in Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand, Prigwan Graphic Co., Ltd. [Online URL:] accessed on September 25, 2018.

Piamsai, C. (2017) An Investigation of Thai Learners’ Needs of English Language Use for Intensive English Course Development. Pasaa Paritat Journal 32: 63-97.

Rattanavich, S. (2015) The Effects of Blind Students' Literacy Development through Concentrated Language Encounter and Traditional Instruction. Faculty of Education Review, Assumption University 1(1): 127-147.

Richards, J. C. (1983) Listening Comprehension: Approach, Design, Procedure. TESOL Quarterly 17(2): 219-240.
Richards, J. C. (2005) Second Thoughts on Teaching Listening. RELC Journal 36(1): 85-92.

Richards, J. C., Platt, J. T. and Weber, H. (1985) Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. London: Longman.

Serafini, E. J., Lake, J. B. and Long, M. H. (2015) Needs Analysis for Specialized Learner Populations: Essential Methodological Improvements. English for Specific Purposes 40: 11-26.

Stein, V., Neßelrath, R. and Alexandersson, J. (2010) Improving Spelling Skills for Blind Language Learners - Orthographic Feedback in an Auditory Vocabulary Trainer. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computer Supported Education (CSEDU), pp. 5014-506. Valencia, Spain). April 7-10.

Supawattanakul, K. (2006) The Blind Who Need to Pay More for Living. [Online URL:] accessed on June 8, 2016.

Suppes, P. (1974) A Survey of Cognition in Handicapped Children. Review of Educational Research 44(2): 145-176.

Todea, L., and Demarcsek, R. (2017) Needs Analysis for Language Course Design: A Case Study for Engineering and Business Students. Paper Presented at the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Baia Mare, Romania. November 10-11.

Tuzi, F. (2013) Needs Analysis for Curriculum Design [Video file]. [Online URL:] accessed on December 15, 2018.

Ur, P. (1991) A Course in Language: Practice and Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.