Thai EFL Learners’ WTC in English: Effects of ICT Support, Learning Orientation, and Cultural Perception

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Budi Waluyo


This study examined the influence of ICT support, language learning orientation, and cultural perception on Thai EFL learners’ willingness to communicate (WTC) inside and outside classroom in a path analysis model. Three indexes, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), and comparative fit index (CFI) were utilized to assess the model fit. The results showed that high levels of ICT support and cultural perception were predictors of low degrees of willingness to communicate inside and outside classroom among Thai EFL learners, while language learning orientations had a significant effect on Thai EFL learners’ WTC inside and outside classroom. The examined model significantly explained 96% of both the variability in learners’ willingness to communicate inside classroom (R2= .96, SE = .01, p < .001) and outside classroom (R2= .96, SE = .01, p < .001). The findings of this study suggest that Thai EFL learners’ WTC inside and outside classroom are not enhanced by various ICT supports; it is only the type of ICT supports stimulating and facilitating communications that can potentially enhance Thai EFL learners’ WTC. Thai EFL learners also do not perceive that their cultural backgrounds impede their WTC inside and outside classroom; in this instance, attention should be paid to interactions and contextual factors which can address communication anxiety and topic relevancy to students’ interests. Nevertheless, language learning orientations influence Thai EFL learners’ WTC inside and outside classroom which is consistent with the findings of previous studies.


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