Thai EFL Learners’ WTC in English: Effects of ICT Support, Learning Orientation, and Cultural Perception

Main Article Content

Budi Waluyo

Abstract

This study examined the influence of ICT support, language learning orientation, and cultural perception on Thai EFL learners’ willingness to communicate (WTC) inside and outside classroom in a path analysis model. Three indexes, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), and comparative fit index (CFI) were utilized to assess the model fit. The results showed that high levels of ICT support and cultural perception were predictors of low degrees of willingness to communicate inside and outside classroom among Thai EFL learners, while language learning orientations had a significant effect on Thai EFL learners’ WTC inside and outside classroom. The examined model significantly explained 96% of both the variability in learners’ willingness to communicate inside classroom (R2= .96, SE = .01, p < .001) and outside classroom (R2= .96, SE = .01, p < .001). The findings of this study suggest that Thai EFL learners’ WTC inside and outside classroom are not enhanced by various ICT supports; it is only the type of ICT supports stimulating and facilitating communications that can potentially enhance Thai EFL learners’ WTC. Thai EFL learners also do not perceive that their cultural backgrounds impede their WTC inside and outside classroom; in this instance, attention should be paid to interactions and contextual factors which can address communication anxiety and topic relevancy to students’ interests. Nevertheless, language learning orientations influence Thai EFL learners’ WTC inside and outside classroom which is consistent with the findings of previous studies.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Research Articles

References

Afshari, M., Ghavifekr, S., Siraj, S. and Jing, D. (2013) Students’ attitudes towards computer-assisted language learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 103: 852-859.

Alavinia, P. and Alikhani, M. A. (2014) Willingness to communicate reappraised in the light of emotional intelligence and gender differences. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 98: 143-152.

Alemi, M., Tajeddin, Z. and Mesbah, Z. (2013) Willingness to communicate in L2 English: Impact of learner variables. Research in Applied Linguistics 4(1): 42-61.

Asmalı, M. (2016) Willingness to communicate of foreign language learners in Turkish context. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 232: 188-195.

Aubrey, S. (2011) Facilitating interaction in East Asian EFL classrooms: increasing studentsʼ willingness to communicate. Language Education in Asia 2(2): 237-45.

Ayedoun, E., Hayashi, Y. and Seta, K. (2016) Web-services based conversational agent to encourage willingness to communicate in the EFL context. The Journal of Information and Systems in Education 15(1): 15-27.

Baker, W. (2008) A critical examination of ELT in Thailand: The role of cultural awareness. RELC journal 39(1): 131-146.

Baran-Łucarz, M. (2014) The link between pronunciation anxiety and willingness to communicate in the foreign-language classroom: The Polish EFL context. Canadian Modern Language Review 70(4): 445-473.

Barjesteh, H., Vaseghi, R. and Neissi, S. (2012) Iranian EFL learners' willingness to communicate across different context-and receiver-types. International Journal of English Linguistics 2(1): 47.

Barrett, P. (2007) Structural equation modelling: Adjudging model fit. Personality and Individual differences 42(5): 815-824.

Beauvois, M. H. (1994) E-talk: Attitudes and motivation in computer-assisted classroom discussion. Computers and the Humanities 28(3): 177-190.

Bergil, A. S. (2016) The influence of willingness to communicate on overall speaking skills among EFL learners. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 232: 177-187.

Bernales, C. (2016) Towards a comprehensive concept of Willingness to Communicate: Learners' predicted and self-reported participation in the foreign language classroom. System 56: 1-12.

Bryant, F. B. and Satorra, A. (2012) Principles and practice of scaled difference chi-square testing. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal 19(3): 372-398.

Buckingham, L. and Alpaslan, R. S. (2017) Promoting speaking proficiency and willingness to communicate in Turkish young learners of English through asynchronous computer-mediated practice. System 65: 25-37.

Byram, M. and Feng, A. (2004) Culture and language learning: Teaching, research and scholarship. Language teaching 37(3): 149-168.

Cao, Y. (2011) Investigating situational willingness to communicate within second language classrooms from an ecological perspective. System 39(4): 468-479.

Cao, Y. and Philp, J. (2006) Interactional context and willingness to communicate: A comparison of behavior in whole class, group and dyadic interaction. System 34(4): 480-493.

Cheng, X. (2000) Asian students' reticence revisited. System 28(3): 435-446.

Choomthong, D. (2011) A case study of learning English passive of Thai EFL learners: Difficulties and learning strategies. Learning strategies. [Online URL: http://iafor.info/archives/offprints/acll2011-offprints/ACLL2011_0083.pdf] accessed on November 7, 2018.

Chu, H. N. R. (2008) Shyness and EFL learning in Taiwan: A study of shy and non-shy college students' use of strategies, foreign language anxiety, motivation, and willingness to communicate. The University of Texas at Austin. [Online URL: https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/3864/chuh41126.pdf?sequence=2] accessed on November 7, 2018.

Clément, R. and Kruidenier, B. G. (1983) Orientations in second language acquisition: The effects of ethnicity, milieu, and target language on their emergence. Language Learning 33(3): 273-291.

Clément, R., Baker, S. C. and MacIntyre, P. D. (2003) Willingness to communicate in a second language: The effects of context, norms, and vitality. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 22(2): 190-209.

Compton, L. (2004) Using text chat to improve willingness to communicate. In Computer Assisted Language Learning: Concepts, contexts, and practices, edited by Son, J. B., pp. 123-144. New York: iUniverse, Inc.

de Saint Léger, D. and Storch, N. (2009) Learners’ perceptions and attitudes: Implications for willingness to communicate in an L2 classroom. System 37(2): 269-285.

Dilbeck, K. E., McCroskey, J. C., Richmond, V. P. and McCroskey, L. L. (2009) Self-perceived communication competence in the Thai culture. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research 38(1): 1-7.

Edwards, P. (2011) They could but they don’t: Willingness to communicate and in group dynamics among Korean learners of English. DHU TESOL 2011 Journal 5-33.

Ehrman, M. and Oxford, R. (1989) Effects of sex differences, career choice, and psychological type on adult language learning strategies. The Modern Language Journal 73(1): 1-13.

Freiermuth, M. and Jarrell, D. (2006). Willingness to communicate: Can online chat help?. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 16(2): 189-212.

Genc, B. and Bada, E. (2005) Culture in language learning and teaching. The Reading Matrix 5(1): 73-84.

George, D. and Mallery, P. (2010) SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference, 17.0 update.

Hsu, H. Y., Wang, S. K. and Comac, L. (2008) Using audio blogs to assist English-language learning: An investigation into student perception. Computer Assisted Language Learning 21(2): 181-198.

Jackson, D. L., Gillaspy Jr, J. A. and Purc-Stephenson, R. (2009) Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: an overview and some recommendations. Psychological methods 14(1): 6-23.

Jones, J. F. (2004) A cultural context for language anxiety. English Australia Journal 21(2): 30-39.

Kabilan, M. K., Ahmad, N. and Abidin, M. J. Z. (2010). Facebook: An online environment for learning of English in institutions of higher education? The Internet and Higher Education 13(4): 179-187.

Kang, D. M. (2014) The effects of study-abroad experiences on EFL learners' willingness to communicate, speaking abilities, and participation in classroom interaction. System 42: 319-332.

Kelm, O. R. (1992) The use of synchronous computer networks in second language instruction: a preliminary report. Foreign Language Annals 25: 441-545.

Khamkhien, A. (2010a) Teaching English speaking and English speaking tests in the Thai context: A reflection from Thai perspective. English Language Teaching 3(1): 184-190.

Khamkhien, A. (2010b) Thai Learners' English Pronunciation Competence: Lesson Learned from Word Stress Assignment. Journal of Language Teaching & Research 1(6): 757-764.

Khamkhien, A. (2011) Quantitative and qualitative views of Thai EFL learners' learning oral communication skills. Academic Research International 1(1): 90-103.

Khodarahmi, E. and Nia, Z. M. (2014) EFL teachers’ classroom discipline strategies and learners’ willingness to communicate in English inside the classroom. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 98: 976-981.

Kim, S. J. (2004) Coping with cultural obstacles to speaking English in the Korean secondary school context. Asian EFL Journal 6(3): 17-27.

Lai, C. H., Chen, W. X., Jong, B. S. and Hsia, Y. T. (2012) The relation between willingness to online communicate and learning achievement. In International conference on information engineering. Lecture Notes in Information Technology 25: 8-12.

Lei, P. W. and Wu, Q. (2012) Estimation in structural equation modeling. [Online URL: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2012-16551-010] accessed on November 7, 2018.

MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clément, R. and Conrod, S. (2001) Willingness to communicate, social support, and language-learning orientations of immersion students. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 23(3): 369-388.

MacIntyre, P. D., Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z. and Noels, K. A. (1998) Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal 82(4): 545-562.

Mahmoodi, M. H. and Moazam, I. (2014) Willingness to communicate (WTC) and L2 achievement: The case of Arabic language learners. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 98: 1069-1076.

Marzban, A. and Mahmoudvand, M. (2013) The Impact of Doing Problem-Solving Tasks on Willingness to Communicate, Self-perceived Communication Competence, and Communication Apprehension among Iranian EFL Learners. Journal of Applied Linguistics 6(13): 125-145.

McCroskey, J. C. and Baer, J. E. (1985) Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement. [Online URL: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED265604.pdf] accessed on November 7, 2018.

McDonald, R. P. and Ho, M. H. R. (2002) Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological methods 7(1): 64.

Menezes, E., Juan-Garau, M. (2015) English Learners’ Willingness to Communicate and Achievement in CLIL and Formal Instruction Contexts. In Content-based Language Learning in Multilingual Educational Environments, edited by Juan-Garau, M. and Salazar-Noguera, J., pp. 221-236. Cham: Springer.

Methitham, P. and Chamcharatsri, P. B. (2011) Critiquing ELT in Thailand: A reflection from history to practice. Journal of Humanities, Naresuan University 8(2): 57-68.

Micceri, T. (1989) The unicorn, the normal curve, and other improbable creatures. Psychological bulletin 105(1): 156-166.

Muthen, L. K. and Muthen, B. O. (1998-2010) Mplus Users’ Guides. 6th ed. Los Angeles: Authors.

Mystkowska-Wiertelak, A. (2016) Dynamics of classroom WTC: Results of a semester study. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 6(4): 651-676.

Nieto, C. and Zoller Booth, M. (2010) Cultural competence: Its influence on the teaching and learning of international students. Journal of Studies in International Education 14(4): 406-425.

Noels, K. A., Pelletier, L. G., Clément, R. and Vallerand, R. J. (2000) Why are you learning a second language? Motivational orientations and self‐determination theory. Language Learning 50(1): 57-85.

Noytim, U. (2010) Weblogs enhancing EFL students’ English language learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 2(2): 1127-1132.

Pattapong, K. (2010) Willingness to communicate in a second language: A qualitative study of issues affecting Thai EFL learners from students' and teachers' point of view. [Online URL: https://ses.library.usyd.edu.
au/bitstream/2123/9244/1/Pattapong_Thesis_2013.pdf] accessed on November 7, 2018.

Pattapong, K. (2015) Complex Interactions of Factors Underlying Thai EFL Learners' Willingness to Communicate in English. PASAA: Journal of Language Teaching and Learning in Thailand 49: 105-136.

Pawlak, M. and Mystkowska-Wiertelak, A. (2015) Investigating the dynamic nature of L2 willingness to communicate. System 50: 1-9.

Peng, J. E. (2012) Towards an ecological understanding of willingness to communicate in EFL classrooms in China. System 40(2): 203-213.

Phoocharoensil, S. (2011) Collocational errors in EFL learners’ interlanguage. Journal of Education and Practice 2(3): 103-120.

Piechurska-Kuciel, E. (2018) Openness to experience as a predictor of L2 WTC. System 72: 190-200.

Rahimi, M. and Yadollahi, S. (2011) Foreign language learning attitude as a predictor of attitudes towards computer-assisted language learning. Procedia Computer Science 3: 167-174.

Reinders, H., and Wattana, S. (2014). Can I Say Something? The Effects of Digital Gameplay on Willingness to Communicate. Language Learning & Technology 18(2): 101-123.

Saengboon, S. (2004) Second language acquisition (SLA) and English language teaching (ELT). PASAA 35:11-34.

Satorra, A. and Bentler, P. M. (2010) Ensuring positiveness of the scaled difference chi-square test statistic. Psychometrika 75(2): 243-248.

Schreiber, J. B., Nora, A., Stage, F. K., Barlow, E. A. and King, J. (2006) Reporting structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis results: A review. The Journal of Educational Research 99(6): 323-338.

Shao, Q. and Gao, X. A. (2016) Reticence and willingness to communicate (WTC) of East Asian language learners. System 63: 115-120.

Shapiro, S. S. and Wilk, M. B. (1965) An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika 52(3/4): 591-611.

Subtirelu, N. (2014) A language ideological perspective on willingness to communicate. System 42: 120-132.

Suksawas, W. (2011) A Sociocultural Study of EFL Learners' Willingness to Communicate. Doctoral Thesis. University of Wollongong, Australia.

Wannaruk, A. (2008) Pragmatic transfer in Thai EFL refusals. RELC Journal 39(3): 318-337.

Wattana, S. (2013) Talking while playing: the effects of computer games on interaction and willingness to communicate in English. [Online URL: https://ir.canterbury.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10092/9227/Thesis_fulltext.pdf?sequence=1] accessed on November 7, 2018.

Weston, R. and Gore, P. A. (2006) A brief guide to structural equation modeling. The Counseling Psychologist 34(5): 719-751.

Wood, D. (2016) Willingness to communicate and second language speech fluency: An idiodynamic investigation. System 60: 11-28.

Yashima, T., Zenuk‐Nishide, L. and Shimizu, K. (2004) The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language Learning 54(1): 119-152.

Young, S. S. C. (2003) Integrating ICT into second language education in a vocational high school. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 19(4): 447-461.

Yuan, K. H. and Bentler, P. M. (2000) Three likelihood‐based methods for mean and covariance structure analysis with non-normal missing data. Sociological Methodology 30(1): 165-200.

Zarrinabadi, N. (2014). Communicating in a second language: Investigating the effect of teacher on learners' willingness to communicate. System 42: 288-295.

Zhong, Q. M. (2013) Understanding Chinese learners' willingness to communicate in a New Zealand ESL classroom: A multiple case study drawing on the theory of planned behavior. System 41(3): 740-751.