Thai EFL Learners’ WTC in English: Effects of ICT Support, Learning Orientation, and Cultural Perception

Main Article Content

Budi Waluyo

Abstract

This study examined the influence of ICT support, language learning orientation, and cultural perception on Thai EFL learners’ willingness to communicate (WTC) inside and outside classroom in a path analysis model. Three indexes, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), and comparative fit index (CFI) were utilized to assess the model fit. The results showed that high levels of ICT support and cultural perception were predictors of low degrees of willingness to communicate inside and outside classroom among Thai EFL learners, while language learning orientations had a significant effect on Thai EFL learners’ WTC inside and outside classroom. The examined model significantly explained 96% of both the variability in learners’ willingness to communicate inside classroom (R2= .96, SE = .01, p < .001) and outside classroom (R2= .96, SE = .01, p < .001). The findings of this study suggest that Thai EFL learners’ WTC inside and outside classroom are not enhanced by various ICT supports; it is only the type of ICT supports stimulating and facilitating communications that can potentially enhance Thai EFL learners’ WTC. Thai EFL learners also do not perceive that their cultural backgrounds impede their WTC inside and outside classroom; in this instance, attention should be paid to interactions and contextual factors which can address communication anxiety and topic relevancy to students’ interests. Nevertheless, language learning orientations influence Thai EFL learners’ WTC inside and outside classroom which is consistent with the findings of previous studies.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Research Articles

References

Afshari, M., Ghavifekr, S., Siraj, S., & Jing, D. (2013). Students’ attitudes towards computer-assisted language learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103, 852-859. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.407
Alemi, M., Tajeddin, Z., & Mesbah, Z. (2013). Willingness to communicate in L2 English: Impact of learner variables. Research in Applied Linguistics, 4(1), 42-61.
Aubrey, S. (2011). Facilitating interaction in East Asian EFL classrooms: increasing studentsʼ willingness to communicate. Language Education in Asia, 2(2), 237-45. https://doi.org/10.5746/leia/11/v2/i2/a06/aubrey
Baker, W. (2008). A critical examination of ELT in Thailand: The role of cultural awareness. RELC journal, 39(1), 131-146. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688208091144
Baran-Łucarz, M. (2014). The link between pronunciation anxiety and willingness to communicate in the foreign-language classroom: The Polish EFL context. Canadian Modern Language Review, 70(4), 445-473. https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.2666
Barrett, Paul. "Structural equation modelling: Adjudging model fit." Personality and Individual differences 42.5 (2007): 815-824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.09.018
Bernales, C. (2016). Towards a comprehensive concept of Willingness to Communicate: Learners' predicted and self-reported participation in the foreign language classroom. System, 56, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.11.002
Bryant, F. B., & Satorra, A. (2012). Principles and practice of scaled difference chi-square testing. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 19(3), 372-398. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2012.687671
Byram, M., & Feng, A. (2004). Culture and language learning: Teaching, research and scholarship. Language teaching, 37(3), 149-168. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0261444804002289
Cao, Y. (2011). Investigating situational willingness to communicate within second language classrooms from an ecological perspective. System, 39(4), 468-479. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2011.10.016
Cao, Y., & Philp, J. (2006). Interactional context and willingness to communicate: A comparison of behavior in whole class, group and dyadic interaction. System, 34(4), 480-493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.05.002
Choomthong, D. (2011). A case study of learning English passive of Thai EFL learners: Difficulties and learning strategies. Learning strategies. Retrieved from https://iafor.info/archives/offprints/acll2011-offprints/ACLL2011_0083.pdf (November 07, 2018)
Chu, H. N. R. (2008). Shyness and EFL learning in Taiwan: A study of shy and non-shy college students' use of strategies, foreign language anxiety, motivation, and willingness to communicate. The University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved from https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/3864/chuh41126.pdf?sequence=2 (November 07, 2018)
Clément, R., Baker, S. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2003). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The effects of context, norms, and vitality. Journal of language and social psychology, 22(2), 190-209. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x03022002003
Clément, R., & Kruidenier, B. G. (1983). Orientations in second language acquisition: The effects of ethnicity, milieu, and target language on their emergence. Language learning, 33(3), 273-291. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1983.tb00542.x
Compton, L. (2004). Using text chat to improve willingness to communicate. Computer-assisted language learning: Concepts, contexts, and practices, 123-144.
de Saint Léger, D., & Storch, N. (2009). Learners’ perceptions and attitudes: Implications for willingness to communicate in an L2 classroom. System, 37(2), 269-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2009.01.001
Dilbeck, K. E., McCroskey, J. C., Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, L. L. (2009). Self-perceived communication competence in the Thai culture. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 38(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475750903381598
Edwards, P. (2011). They could but they don’t: Willingness to communicate and in group dynamics among Korean learners of English. DHU TESOL 2011 Journal, 5-33.
Ehrman, M., & Oxford, R. (1989). Effects of sex differences, career choice, and psychological type on adult language learning strategies. The modern language journal, 73(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.2307/327261
Freiermuth, M., & Jarrell, D. (2006). Willingness to communicate: Can online chat help?. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 16(2), 189-212. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2006.00113.x
Fujiwara, T. (2011). Language Learning Beliefs of Thai EFL University Students: Dimensional Structure and Cultural Variations. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 8(1).
Genc, B., & Bada, E. (2005). Culture in language learning and teaching. The Reading Matrix, 5(1).
George, D., & Mallery, P. (2010). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference, 17.0 update.
Hsu, H. Y., Wang, S. K., & Comac, L. (2008). Using audio blogs to assist English-language learning: An investigation into student perception. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 21(2), 181-198. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588220801943775
Jackson, D. L., Gillaspy Jr, J. A., & Purc-Stephenson, R. (2009). Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: an overview and some recommendations. Psychological methods, 14(1), 6. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014694
Kabilan, M. K., Ahmad, N., & Abidin, M. J. Z. (2010). Facebook: An online environment for learning of English in institutions of higher education?. The Internet and higher education, 13(4), 179-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.07.003
Khamkhien, A. (2010). Teaching English speaking and English speaking tests in the Thai context: A reflection from Thai perspective. English Language Teaching, 3(1), 184. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v3n1p184
Khamkhien, A. (2010). Thai Learners' English Pronunciation Competence: Lesson Learned from Word Stress Assignment. Journal of Language Teaching & Research, 1(6). https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.1.6.757-764
Khamkhien, A. (2011). Quantitative and qualitative views of Thai EFL learners' learning oral communication skills. Academic Research International, 1(1), 90.
Khodarahmi, E., & Nia, Z. M. (2014). EFL teachers’ classroom discipline strategies and learners’ willingness to communicate in English inside the classroom. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 976-981. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.507
Kim, S. J. (2004). Coping with cultural obstacles to speaking English in the Korean secondary school context. Asian EFL Journal, 6(3), 17-27. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v4n12p83
Lai, C. H., Chen, W. X., Jong, B. S., & Hsia, Y. T. (2012, January). The relation between willingness to online communicate and learning achievement. In International conference on information engineering. Lecture Notes in Information Technology (Vol. 25, pp. 8-12).
Lei, P. W., & Wu, Q. (2012). Estimation in structural equation modeling. Retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2012-16551-010 (November 07, 2018)
McCroskey, J. C., & Baer, J. E. (1985). Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED265604.pdf (November 07, 2018)
MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clément, R., & Conrod, S. (2001). Willingness to communicate, social support, and language-learning orientations of immersion students. Studies in second language acquisition, 23(3), 369-388. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0272263101003035
MacIntyre, P. D., & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of language and social psychology, 15(1), 3-26. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x960151001
Marzban, A., & Mahmoudvand, M. (2013). The Impact of Doing Problem-Solving Tasks on Willingness to Communicate, Self-perceived Communication Competence, and Communication Apprehension among Iranian EFL Learners. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 6(13), 125-145.
McDonald, R. P., & Ho, M. H. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological methods, 7(1), 64. https://doi.org/10.1037//1082-989x.7.1.64
Methitham, P., & Chamcharatsri, P. B. (2011). Critiquing ELT in Thailand: A reflection from history to practice. Journal of Humanities, Naresuan University, 8(2), 57-68.
Menezes, E., & Juan-Garau, M. (2015). English learners’ willingness to communicate and achievement in CLIL and formal instruction contexts. In Content-based language learning in multilingual educational environments (pp. 221-236). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11496-5_13
Micceri, T. (1989). The unicorn, the normal curve, and other improbable creatures. Psychological bulletin, 105(1), 156. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.105.1.156
Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (1998-2010). Mplus users’ guides (6th edition). Los Angeles: Authors.
Mystkowska-Wiertelak, A. (2016). Dynamics of classroom WTC: Results of a semester study. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(4), 651-676. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2016.6.4.5
Nieto, C., & Zoller Booth, M. (2010). Cultural competence: Its influence on the teaching and learning of international students. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(4), 406-425.
Noels, K. A., Pelletier, L. G., Clément, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (2000). Why are you learning a second language? Motivational orientations and self‐determination theory. Language learning, 50(1), 57-85. https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00111
Noytim, U. (2010). Weblogs enhancing EFL students’ English language learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 1127-1132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.159
Pattapong, K. (2015). Complex Interactions of Factors Underlying Thai EFL Learners' Willingness to Communicate in English. PASAA: Journal of Language Teaching and Learning in Thailand, 49, 105-136.
Pattapong, K. (2010). Willingness to communicate in a second language: A qualitative study of issues affecting Thai EFL learners from students' and teachers' point of view. Retrieved from https://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/bitstream/2123/9244/1/Pattapong_Thesis_2013.pdf (November 07, 2018)
Pawlak, M., & Mystkowska-Wiertelak, A. (2015). Investigating the dynamic nature of L2 willingness to communicate. System, 50, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.02.001
Peng, J. E. (2012). Towards an ecological understanding of willingness to communicate in EFL classrooms in China. System, 40(2), 203-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2012.02.002
Phoocharoensil, S. (2011). Collocational errors in EFL learners’ interlanguage. Journal of education and practice, 2(3), 103-120.
Piechurska-Kuciel, E. (2018). Openness to experience as a predictor of L2 WTC. System, 72, 190-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.01.001
Rahimi, M., & Yadollahi, S. (2011). Foreign language learning attitude as a predictor of attitudes towards computer-assisted language learning. Procedia Computer Science, 3, 167-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2010.12.029
Reinders, H., & Wattana, S. (2014). Can I say something? The effects of digital game play on willingness to communicate.
Reinders, H. & Wattana, S. (2011). Learn English or die: The effects of digital games on interaction and willingness to communicate in a foreign language. Digital Culture and Education, 3(1), 4–28.
Saengboon, S. (2004). Second language acquisition (SLA) and English language teaching (ELT). PASAA. Bangkok, 35, 11-34.
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2010). Ensuring positiveness of the scaled difference chi-square test statistic. Psychometrika, 75(2), 243-248. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11336-009-9135-y
Schreiber, J. B., Nora, A., Stage, F. K., Barlow, E. A., & King, J. (2006). Reporting structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis results: A review. The Journal of educational research, 99(6), 323-338. https://doi.org/10.3200/joer.99.6.323-338
Shapiro, S. S., & Wilk, M. B. (1965). An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika, 52(3/4), 591-611. https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/52.3-4.591
Subtirelu, N. (2014). A language ideological perspective on willingness to communicate. System, 42, 120-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.11.004
Suksawas, W. (2011). A sociocultural study of EFL learners' willingness to communicate.
Wannaruk, A. (2008). Pragmatic transfer in Thai EFL refusals. RELC journal, 39(3), 318-337. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688208096844
Wattana, S. (2013). Talking while playing: the effects of computer games on interaction and willingness to communicate in English. Retrieved from https://ir.canterbury.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10092/9227/Thesis_fulltext.pdf?sequence=1 (November 07, 2018)
Weston, R., & Gore, P. A. (2006). A brief guide to structural equation modeling. The counseling psychologist, 34(5), 719-751. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000006286345
Yashima, T., Zenuk‐Nishide, L., & Shimizu, K. (2004). The influence of attitudes and affect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language learning, 54(1), 119-152. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2004.00250.x
Yuan, K. H., & Bentler, P. M. (2000). Three likelihood‐based methods for mean and covariance structure analysis with non-normal missing data. Sociological methodology, 30(1), 165-200. https://doi.org/10.1111/0081-1750.00078
Zarrinabadi, N. (2014). Communicating in a second language: Investigating the effect of teacher on learners' willingness to communicate. System, 42, 288-295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.12.014
Zhong, Q. M. (2013). Understanding Chinese learners' willingness to communicate in a New Zealand ESL classroom: A multiple case study drawing on the theory of planned behavior. System, 41(3), 740-751. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.08.001