Causal Factors of Regional Tourism Behavior in Generation Y Tourists

Main Article Content

Nalinee Phansaita
Kanchana Pattrawiwat
Chokechai Suveatwatanakul


The purposes of this causal research were to validate the causal factors of regional tourism behavior (RTB) and to study the influences of internal and external factors on RTB. The sampling consisted of 534 generation Y tourists in Thailand. Data were collected through questionnaire. Reliability (.79 – .96) and Confirmatory factor analysis and construct reliability (.82 - .98) were performed to evaluate the quality of data. Data was analyzed using the structural equation modeling technique. The results showed that the proposed model fitted with the empirical data (Chi-square = 728.77, df = 166, p < .001, RMSEA = .080, SRMR = .075, GFI = .885, AGFI = .840, NFI = .928, CFI = .945, Chi-square/df = 4.390). The most prominent factors influencing RTB of generation Y tourists were motivation of regional tourism, destination attributes, and reference group. These findings are beneficial to the Tourism Authority of Thailand and those involved in tourism industry such as travel agents, entrepreneurs, and other related service providers. Based on the findings, these organizations in tourism industry can develop the service and product planning to fit with generation Y’s needs in order to promote their RTB.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Phansaita, N., Pattrawiwat, K. ., & Suveatwatanakul, C. . (2022). Causal Factors of Regional Tourism Behavior in Generation Y Tourists. Journal of Behavioral Science for Development, 14(2), 39–58. Retrieved from
Research Article


Alhemoud, A. M., & Armstrong, E. G. (1996). Image of tourism attractions in Kuwait. Journal of Travel Research, 34(4), 76-80.

Amin, M., & Priansah, P. (2019). Marketing communication strategy to improve tourism potential. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute-Journal (BIRCI-Journal), 2(4), 160-166.

Chi, C. G. Q., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach. Tourism Management, 29(4), 624-636.

Christie, I. T., & Crompton, D. E. (2001). Tourism in Africa. World Bank.

Committee of National Tourism Policy. (2017). The second national tourism development plan (2017-2021). Security service the war veterans’ organization of Thailand Printing. [in Thai]

Cooper, C., & Shepherd, R. (2008). Tourism: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Pearson.

Cooper, C., Fletcher, J., Gilbert, D., & Wanhill, S. (1993). Tourism: Principles and Practice. Longman Scientific & Technical.

Crompton, J. L., & McKay, S. L. (1997). Motives of visitors attending festival events. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(2), 425-439.

Cruz, Z. L. (2008). Principles of Tourism Part I. Rex Book Store.

Dann, G. M. (1977). Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 4(4), 184-194.

Dieke, P. U. (1998). Scope and critical issues. Embracing and managing change in tourism: International case studies, 29.

Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. (2003). The meaning and measurement of destination image. Journal of Tourism Studies, 14(1), 37-48.

Escalas, J. E., & Bettman, J. R. (2003). You are what they eat: The influence of reference groups on consumers’ connections to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(3), 339-348.

Fantem, C., Somchan, S., Sreesompong, P., Ongkhluap, S., & Hombubpha, S. (2019). Factors affecting tourists’ behavior towards shopping in Mae Sot special economic zone, Tak province. The Golden Teak: Humanity and Social Science Journal, 25(1), 135-150. [in Thai]

Farahani, B. M., & Sukmajati, D. (2011). Youth travelers as a growing market in urban tourism; potencies and challenges. Environment Talk: Toward A Better Green Living (pp. 117-129), Jakarta, Indonesia: Mercu Buana University.

Ghimire, K. B. (2001). Regional tourism and South-South economic cooperation. The Geographical Journal, 167(2), 99-110.

Goeldner, C. R., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (2012). Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies (12th ed.). Wiley.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Pearson.

Hamouda, M. (2018). Understanding social media advertising effect on consumers’ responses: An empirical investigation of tourism advertising on Facebook. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 31(3), 426-445.

Hasan, T. M. H., Som, A. P. M., & Ismail, F. (2018). The influence of travel motivation on satisfaction and intention to visit Terengganu. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(4.34), 480-483.

Hawkins, D. I., & Mothersbaugh, D. L. (2010). Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy (12th ed.). McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Hsu, C. H., Kang, S. K., & Lam, T. (2006). Reference group influences among Chinese travelers. Journal of Travel Research, 44(4), 474-484.

Jittangwattana, B. (2005). Tourism Industry. Tourism Academic Center of Thailand. [in Thai]

Kasim, A., Dzakiria, H., Park, C., Nor, N. A. M., Mokhtar, M. F., & Rashid Radha, J. R. R. R. (2013). Predictors of travel motivations: the case of domestic tourists to island destinations in northwest of Malaysia. Anatolia, 24(2), 188-205.

Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (2nd ed.). Guilford.

Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing Management (11th ed.). Prentice Hall.

Kotler, P., Bowen, J. T., & Makens, J. C. (2010). Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism (5th ed.). Prentice Hall.

Lam, T., & Hsu, C. H. (2006). Predicting behavioral intention of choosing a travel destination. Tourism Management, 27(4), 589-599.

Marangkun, W., & Thipjumnong, A. (2017). The relationship between marketing promotion of historical tourism and tourist motivation of domestic tourists: case study of KohYoh, Songkhla Province, Thailand. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 5(1), 25-37.

Martaleni, M., Hadiyati, E., & Yasa, N. N. K. (2021). Role of tourist motivation as mediating variable on visitor decisions at Indonesian tourism village. Innovative Marketing, 17(3), 88-98.

Meeprom, S., & Charoenrat T. (2019). Examining the effect of tourists’ motivation and satisfaction towards Nakhonchaiburin tourism cluster. Development Economic Review, 13(1), 42-62.

Methanai, C., & Sartmoon, S. (2019). Motivation to make a decision making of tourists to visit retro markets in Thailand. Journal of Modern Management Science, 12(2), 37-52. [in Thai]

Ministry of Tourism and Sports. (2015). Thai Tourism Strategy (2015-2017). [in Thai]

Mohsin, A., Lengler, J., & Chaiya, P. (2017). Does travel interest mediate between motives and intention to travel? A case of young Asian travellers. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31, 36-44.

Murphy, L., Moscardo, G., Benckendorff, P., & Pearce, P. (2011). Evaluating tourist satisfaction with the retail experience in a typical tourist shopping village. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 18(4), 302-310.

Na Pathum, S., Devakul, S., & Laksitanont, P. (2007). Advanced consumer behavior: marketing industry business retail integrated marketing communication. Brandage Books. [in Thai]

Naka, T., Promsuwon, S., Wongmontha, S., & Thanapattarakul, T. (2017). Marketing communication strategy for promoting tourism in the upper southern region. Journal of MCU Peace Studies, 3(5), 290-304. [in Thai]

Ngourungsi, T., & Polanan, M. (2017). Marketing communications tool for feedback towards domestic tourist’s decision on Bangkok area tourism. Dusit Thani College Journal, 11(2), 143-154. [in Thai]

Paudyal, R., Stein, T. V., & Swisher, M. E. (2020). Structural relations between motivations and site attribute preferences of Florida National Scenic Trail visitors. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 38(2), 80-97.

Ponte, J., Couto, G., Sousa, Á., Pimentel, P., & Oliveira, A. (2021). Idealizing adventure tourism experiences: tourists’ self-assessment and expectations. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 35, 100379.

Punyapapassorn, N. (2020). The application of influencer marketing strategies to raise awareness for Russian tourists. Journal of the Association of Researchers, 25(3), 252-265. [in Thai]

Quan, S., & Wang, N. (2004). Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: An illustration from food experiences in tourism. Tourism Management, 25(3), 297-305.

Rebollo, H. P. M. (2018). A structural model of millennial tourism behavior towards tourism in Davao Region. Journal of Advances in Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(1), 26-36

Reitsamer, B. F., Brunner-Sperdin, A., & Stokburger-Sauer, N. E. (2016). Destination attractiveness and destination attachment: The mediating role of tourists' attitude. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19, 93-101.

Scheyvens, R. (2002). Backpacker tourism and third world development. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(1), 144-164.

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2010). A Beginner's Guide to Structural Equation Modeling (3rd ed.). Routledge.

Snepenger, D., King, J., Marshall, E., & Uysal, M. (2006). Modeling Iso-Ahola’s motivation theory in the tourism context. Journal of Travel Research, 45(2), 140-149.

Sönmez, S. F., & Graefe, A. R. (1998). Determining future travel behavior from past travel experience and perceptions of risk and safety. Journal of Travel Research, 37(2), 171-177.

Sophonsiri, S. (2011). Analysis of Tourist Behavior. Inthanin Printing. [in Thai]

Sritan, S., & Chaiya, P. (2017). The perception and travel motive of Thai tourists as a holiday destination towards Maechaem district in Chiang Mai. Chophayom Journal, 28(2), 296-304. [in Thai]

Swarbrooke, J., & Horner, S. (2001). Consumer Behavior in Tourism.Butterworth Heinemann.

Yang, J. J., & Ahn, S. C. (2020). The effects of attitude, subjective norm, and behavioral intention on perceived values in traditional marketplaces. The Journal of Distribution Science, 18(10), 25-38.

Yangprayong, P., & Chuaimanee, S. (2016). Ecotourism of Thai tourist: The case visiting Phu Pha Phet Cave, Satun province. Economics and Public Policy Journal, 7(13), 56-70. [in Thai]

Zhang, J., & Walsh, J. (2021). Tourist experience, tourist motivation and destination loyalty for historic and cultural tourists. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 28(4), 3277-3296.