Development of personal growth initiatives, self-leadership and self-directed learning in English among of Thai undergraduate students for the free flow of skilled labor in the ASEAN community

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Pichamon Boonsit
Wichuda Kijtorntham
Numchai Supparerkchaisakul


The objectives of this research were to 1) to study change over period of time with variables consisting of personal growth initiatives, self-leadership, learning environment, learning motivation and self-directed language learning; 2) to study the causal relationships of cross-lagged self-directed language learning; and 3) to study the change among variables over a period of time, through university learning experience and participation in activities inside and outside the university by using a mixed-methods explanatory sequential design. In phase one, the quantitative research, there were two hundred Thai undergraduate students for the free flow of skilled labor in the ASEAN community. The questionnaires had five measures and were used three times, including the Latent Growth Curve Model and the Structural Equation Modeling were applied to test two hypotheses. Phase two consisted of qualitative research and in-depth interviews were conducted with ten key informants from phase one of the research sample, with the average score increasing in the same manner as in the first phase of the research.

The research findings from phase one were as follows: 1) The latent growth curve model of all variables fit with the empirical data, significantly increased over a period of time; 2) there were cross-lagged causal relationships; some variables were correlated with themselves at different points in time, some of the ahead causal variables had an effect on some of the next effect variables, while some of the ahead effect variables had an effect to some of next causal variables. In phase two, the research found that there are two types of changes, increasing and decreasing, due to the context of teaching and learning activities in the university curriculum and there were continuously increasing changes, regardless of the teaching context and learning activities in the university curriculum.


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Boonsit, P., Kijtorntham, W., & Supparerkchaisakul, N. (2020). Development of personal growth initiatives, self-leadership and self-directed learning in English among of Thai undergraduate students for the free flow of skilled labor in the ASEAN community. Journal of Behavioral Science for Development, 12(2), 45-62. Retrieved from
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