A Development of Instructional Process in Free Play Activities Based on Tools of the Mind and Brain Based Learning Approaches to Enhance Executive Functions of Kindergarteners


  • ดุษฎี อุปการ Chulalongkorn University
  • อุดมลักษณ์ กุลพิจิตร, รองศาสตราจารย์ ดร. Chulalongkorn University




The purposes of research and development were: 1) to develop an instructional process in free play activities based on the tools of the mind and brain based learning approaches to enhance executive functions of kindergarteners; and 2) to study the effectiveness of the developed instructional process. The research procedure was divided into 3 phases: 1) developing the instructional process,
2) pilot studying the developed instructional process, and 3) studying the effects of the developed instructional process. The samples were 35 students from five to six year-old. 18 students were divided into the experimental group and 17 students for the control group at Bannamphimittraphap 214 School by using multi-stage random sampling. Research duration took 16 months. Instruments for data collection were Hearts and Flowers, an executive functions assessment, and an executive functions behavior observation. Arithmetic mean, Standard deviation, and t-test were applied to analyze results of the study. The research findings were as follows: 1) the developed instructional process were four steps: boost up brain, stop and think before playing, play together, and share success, and 2) the testing result revealed that the executive functions’ average scores between experimental group and control group after controlling for pretest was statistically significant differences at .05, and the effect size was large.


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Author Biographies

ดุษฎี อุปการ, Chulalongkorn University

Ph. D. Candidate in Early Childhood Education Division, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University

อุดมลักษณ์ กุลพิจิตร, รองศาสตราจารย์ ดร., Chulalongkorn University

Lecturer in Early Childhood Education Division, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University



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