Using Vertical Garden as Restorative Environment from Fatigue in CMED Canteen, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital

Main Article Content

Puttipong Meethong
Apichoke Lekagul


This research aims at using restorative environment to restore the mind of professional nurses from mental fatigue. The Attention Restoration Theory (ART) is applied to create 3 patterns of simulated environments of CMED Canteen, in which the professional nurses use in a daily routine. The simulated environments provide two color tone sets, green and multicolored autumn. Each set comprises the original condition canteen, the canteen with the 2D vertical garden and the canteen with 3D vertical garden. The sample group of 40 registered nurses evaluate the 3D simulated environments on Virtual Reality Goggle using the short version of Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) to test the hypothesis that 1) the canteen with 2D vertical garden will receive higher PRS score than a canteen without vertical garden; 2) the canteen with 3D vertical garden will receive higher PRS score than the canteen with 2D vertical garden; and 3) the green tone vertical gardens and the multicolored autumn vertical gardens will yield different PRS scores. The results proved that the hypothesis is accepted because patterns of environment have effects on the Perceived Restorativeness. However, color tone does not have an effect on Perceived Restorativeness. The research concludes that all the simulated environments with vertical gardens provide significantly higher PRS scores than the original condition. An application of the multicolored 3D simulated environment to the CMED canteen can restore nurses’ mind from attention fatigue, so that they can come back to work effectively.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



Berto, R. (2005). Exposure to restorative environments helps restore attentional capacity. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25(3), 249–259.

Berto, R. (2014). The Role of Nature in Coping with Psycho-Physiological Stress: A Literature Review on Restorativeness. Behavioral Sciences, 2014, 4(4), 394-409.

Bishop, I. D., & Rohrmann, B. (2003). Subjective responses to simulated and real environments: a comparison. Landscape and Urban Planning, 65(1), 261-277.

Carina, T. I., & Caroline, M. H. (2008). The perceived restorativeness of gardens – Assessing the restorativeness of a mixed built and natural scene type. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 7(2) 15 May 2008, 107-118.

Carrus, G., Scopelliti, M., Lafortezza, R., Colangelo, G., Ferrini, F., Salbitano, F., ... Sanesi, G. (2015). Go greener, feel better? The positive effects of biodiversity on the well-being of individuals visiting urban and peri-urban green areas. Landscape and Urban Planning, 134(1), 221-228.

Felsten, G. (2009). Where to take a study break on the college campus: An attention restoration theory perspective. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29(1). 160-167.

Fuller, R. A., Fuller, K. N., Irvine, P., Devine-Wright, P. H., Warren, K. J., & Gaston (2007). Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity. Biology Letters, 3(4), 390-394.

Hartig, T., Korpela, K., Evans G. W., & Garling, T. (1997). A measure of restorative quality in environments. Scandinavian Housing & Planning Research, 175–194.

Hartig, T., Mang, M., & Evans, G. W. (1991). Restorative effects of natural environment experience. Environment and Behavior, 3–26.

Hartig, T., Mitchell, R., De Vries, S., & Frumkin, H., (2014). Nature and health. Annual Review of Public Health, 35(1), 207–228.

Jain, R., & Janakiram, T. (2016). Vertical Gardening: A New Concept of Modern Era. Commercial Horticulture, 527-536. New Delhi, India; New India Publishing Agency.

Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (1989). The Experience of Nature – A Psychological Perspective. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kaplan, S. (1995). The Restorative Benefits of Nature: Toward an integrative Framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 5(1). 169-182.

Matilda, A., Peter, J., Mattias, W., & Gerd, J. (2013). Inducing physiological stress recovery with sounds of nature in a virtual reality forest — Results from a pilot study. Physiology & Behavior, 118(1), 113-124.

Nielsen, T. S., & Hansen, K. B. (2007). Do green areas affect health? Results from a Danish survey on the use of green areas and health indicators. Health Place, 839-850.

Pals, R., Steg, L., Dontje, j., Siero, F. W., & Van der Zee, K. I. (2014). Physical features, coherence and positive outcomes of Person environment interactions: A virtual reality study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 40(12), 108-116.

Powell, K. E., & Blair, S. N. (1994). The public health burdens of sedentary living habits: theoretical but realistic estimates. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 26(1), 851-856.

Tsunetsugu, Y., Juyoung, L., Bum, J. P., Tyrväinen, L., Kagawa, T., & Miyazaki, Y. (2013). Physiological and psychological effects of viewing urban forest landscapes assessed by multiple measurements. Landscape and Urban Planning, 113, 90-93.

Ulrich, R. S. (1986). Human response to vegetation and landscape. Landscape and Urban Planning, 13(1), 29–44.

Van den Berg, A. E., & Van Winsum-Westra, M. (2010). Manicured, romantic, or wild? The relation between need for structure and preferences for garden styles, “Urban Forestry and Urban Greening” 2010(9), 179–186.

Yommarat, W. (2010). Selective Factors Affecting the Stress in Performance of Nurses in Provate Hospiitals in Nakhon Ratchasima (Master’s Thesis). Faculty of Education, Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University.

Yu, C. P, Lee, H. Y, Luo, X. Y. (2018). The effect of virtual reality forest and urban environments on physiological and psychological responses. Urban For Urban Green, 2018(35), 106–114.

Ziesenitz, A., & Kromker, D. (2008). Is Virtual Nature Equally Restorative as Physical Nature? An Experimental Comparison Study. Paper presented at the International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference, Rome, Italy.