Hierarchical Attributes of Selected Stakeholders Participation in City Planning and Development: A Case Study of Khon Kaen Smart City, Thailand

Main Article Content

Touch Seng
Rawee Hanpachern
Meng Bunnarith
Khwanchanok Ampha


This paper aims to determine the hierarchical classification of the attributes of participation used by planners and selected stakeholders in a participatory planning approach for smart city development. It also attempts to contribute to the unsolved question raised by Wandersman Giamartino (1980) that “if participation is so rewarding and effective, why doesn’t everyone participate?” The exploratory sequential mixed method was applied for the data collection procedure. The results of the qualitative approach were used to develop the questionnaires which were conducted with 18 experts/ planners and 111 selected stakeholders. The findings indicated that the interest, influence, and area-based were the key attributes used by planning agency/planners to select the stakeholders to participate in the participatory planning processes. On the other hand, the selected stakeholders relied on the interest, area-based, influence, and urgency to decide to participate in the participatory planning process of Khon Kaen Smart City. Furthermore, the selected stakeholders preferred the on-place-participation rather than e-participation and informal and indirect participation gateways to have an influence on the processes of decision-making.  


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



Alraout, A. A. (2006). Knowledge cities: examining the discourse smart villages, internet cities or creativity engines. PLANNING MALAYSIA JOURNAL, 4(1), 31-48

Bass, B.M. (1960). Leadership, psychology, and organizational behavior. Oxford, England: Harper.

Bishop, P., & Davis, G. (2002). Mapping public participation in policy choices. Australian journal of public administration, 61(1), 14-29.

Cambridge University Press and Assessment. (1995). interest. In Cambridge Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/interest

Cornwall, A., & Gaventa, J. (2000). From users and choosers to makers and shapers repositioning participation in social policy1. IDS Bulletin, 31(4), 50-62.

Creswell, J.W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 4thed. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage publications.

Davies, S. R., Selin, C., Gano, G., & Pereira, Â. G. (2012). Citizen engagement and urban change: Three case studies of material deliberation. Cities, 29(6), 351-357.

Dodds, F. (2002). The context: Multi-stakeholder processes and global. governance. Hemmati, M.‘Multi-Stakeholder Processes: Beyond Deadlock and Conflict. London: Earthscan.

Espinosa-Orias, N., & Sharratt, P.N. (2006). A hierarchical approach to stakeholder engagement. 13th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Leuven, May 31-June 2, 2006

Fung, A. (2006). Varieties of participation in complex governance. Public administration review, 66(1), 66-75.

Giffinger, R., & Gudrun, H. (2010). Smart cities ranking: An effective instrument for the positioning of the cities?. ACE: Architecture, City and Environment, 4(12), 7-26.

Kelly, J, Grosvenor, T. & Jones, P. (2004). Successful transportation decision-making: A project management and stakeholder engagement handbook. CIVITAS. Retrieved from http://civitas.eu/sites/default/files/ guidemapshandbook_web.pdf

Holzer, B. (2007). Turning stake seekers into stakeholders: A political coalition perspective on the politics of stakeholder influence. Business Society, 47(1), 50-67.

Kim, S., & Lee, J. (2012). E-participation, transparency, and trust in local government. Public Administration Review, 72(6), 819-828.

Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modelling. Guilford.

McDonald, J. H. (2014). Handbook of biological statistics (3rd ed.). Sparky House.

Mohammadi, S. N. (2010). People’s participation in development projects at grass-root level: A case study of Alampur and Jagannathpur Union Parishad Master [Master’s thesis, North South University].

Mortensen, J., Rohde, F. J., Kristiansen, K. R., Kanstrup-Clausen, M., & Lubanski, M. (2012). Danish smart cities: Sustainable living in an urban world an overview of Danish Smart City Competencies. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster.

Murray, A., Minevich, M., & Abdoullaev, A. (2011). Being smart about smart cities. Searcher, 19(8), 20.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2003, August 8). Checklist for E-Government Leaders. Google Scholar. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Checklist+for+E- Government+Leaders&btnG=

Ondee, P., & Pannarunothai, S. (2008). Stakeholder analysis: Who are the key actors in establishing and developing Thai independent consumer organizations?. International Journal of Human and Social Sciences, 3(4), 265-275.

Parker, G., & Murray, C. (2011). Beyond tokenism? community-led planning and rational choices: Findings from participants in local agenda-setting at the neighbourhood scale in England. Town Planning Review, 83(1), 1-28.

Pateman, C. (2012). Participatory democracy revisited. Perspectives on politics, 10(1), 7-19.

Peiró, J. M., & Meliá, J. L. (2003). Formal and informal interpersonal power in organisations: Testing a bifactorial model of power in role-sets. Applied Psychology, 52(1), 14-35.

Sopchokchai, O. (2001). Good local governance and anti-corruption through people’s participation: A case of Thailand. CiteSeerX. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/pdf/e407f853f7bf22c49bbbf02b513d7daaeed4af14

Steinert, K., Marom, R., & Richard, P. H., Veiga, G., & Witters, L. (2011). Making cities smart and sustainable. The Global Innovation Index, 14, 87-95.

Sudhipongpracha, T., & Wongpredee, A. (2016). Decentralizing decentralized governance: Community empowerment and coproduction of municipal public works in Northeast Thailand. Community Development Journal, 51(2), 302-319.

Swapan, M. S. H. (2016). Who participates and who doesn’t? adapting community participation model for developing countries. Cities, 53, 70-77.

Tahir, Z., & Malek, J. A. (2016). Main criteria in the development of smart cities determined using analytical method. Planning Malaysia Journal, 14(5), 1-14.

Tandon, R. (2008). Participation, citizenship and democracy: Reflections on 25 years’ of PRIA. Community Development Journal, 43(3), 284-296.

Tosun, C. (2005). Stages in the emergence of a participatory tourism development approach in the developing world. Geoforum, 36(3), 333-352.

Touch, S., & Rawee, H. (2018). The role of urban planners in relation to stakeholder involvement in planning process. Built Environment Inquiry, 17(2), 69-91.

Wandersman, A., & Giamartino, G. A. (1980). Community and individual difference characteristics as influences on initial participation. American journal of community psychology, 8(2), 217–228.

Webler, T., & Tuler, S. (2006). Four perspectives on public participation process in environmental assessment and decision making: Combined results from 10 case studies. Policy Studies Journal, 34(4), 699-722.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2005). Module 4 policy development process. In Health service planning and policy making: A toolkit for nurses and midwives (pp. 1-43). World Health Organization, Western Pacific Region. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/207061

Yee, S. (2010). Stakeholder engagement and public participation in environmental flows and river health assessment. Australia-China Environment Development Partnership.