Article Review: Creative Thoughts Associated with Environmental Art From the 1960s Onwards

Main Article Content

Pattamon Selanon
Ning Cui


All arts can serve as an inspiration of innovation ideas for landscape architectural design as well as other built environmental design disciplines. In 1960s, environmental art originated with aiming to rebel against the art gallery or museum by creating innovative art using natural elements setting on an outdoor location. The art is taken in various forms such as large sculptural artworks and, also, the installation art for a specific site, etc. Several artist scholars such as Rosalind Krauss (1979) and Spyros Papapetros & Julian Rose (2014) marked that there are no specific principles or general agreement or specific theory in terms of the approaches to exploring landscapes entangled with the art. However, within broad terrain of practice of the environmental art, this research attempted to provide core creative thoughts applied to the art, which can be divided into 6 themes including 1) Modernism 2) Postmodernism, 3) Genius loci or spirit of place, 4) concepts of eighteenth-century aesthetics, 5) environmentalism and 6) passage of time. Accordingly, the study explores possibilities in convergences in design expression between landscape architecture and environmental art. Summarization of the study includes with current approach of the environmental art.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Review Article


Allsworth, H. (2013). Creative Spark. Hannah Allsworth. Retrieved November, 2016 from

Adamson, G., Pavitt, J., Antonelli, P., Museum, V. & Museum, A. (2011). Postmodernism: Style and Subversion. London: V&A Pub.

Avant Guardians (2015). Alan Sonfist. Avant Guardians Website. Retrieved December 22, 2015 from

Barrett, T. (1994). Criticizing Art: Understanding the Contemporary. California: Mayfield Publishing Company.

Barry, J. (1999). Environment and Social Theory. New York: Routledge.

Belden, A. & Fessard, O. (2001). Children and the Arts. Atlanta: Georgia Family.

Beardsley, J. (1998). Earthworks and Beyond 3rd Edition. New York: Abbeville Press Publisher.

Binkly, S. (2010). Intertwined Through Time: Andy Goldsworthy and His Masterpieces. The URC Undergraduate Research Journal for the Human Sciences Special Edition. Retrieved 3 April, 2015 from

Bizarre Beyond Believe Magazine (2015). Nils Udo: Clemson Clay Nest. Bizarre Beyond Believe Magazine. Retrieved December 27, 2015 from

Boettger, S. (2002). Earthworks: Art and Landscape of the Sixties. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Commandeur, I. & Riemsdijk-Zandee, T. V. (2012). Robert Smithson Art in Continual Movement. Amsterdam: Alauda Publications.

Clayton, S. (2012). Art Spaces: Menil Collection Front Lawn. Stephanie Clayton Art Journal. Retrieved October 22, 2015 from

Christo, V. J. & Jeanne-Claude, D. D. G. (2015). Running Fence. Christo and Jeanne-Claude. Retrieved December 27, 2015 from

Collins and Goto (2015). Public Art. Collins and Goto: Art and Environmental Change Website. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from

Conon, M. (Ed.). (2000). Environmentalism in Landscape Architecture. Washington DC.: Dumbarton Oaks.

Crouch, C. (1999). Modernism in Art, Design and Architecture. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Cuddy, D. (2015). Joseph Beuys. Widewall. Retrieved November 15, 2015 from

Dia Art (2016). Walter De Maria, The Vertical Earth Kilometer. Dia Art. Retrieved 11 July, 2016 from

Dreher, T. (2008). Robert Morris: Observatory. Retrieved December 11, 2015 from

Earthday Network (2015) Earth Day: The History of a Movement. Retrieved September 20, 2015 from

Entwistle, T.(2015). Trudi Entwistle Site Specific Artist. Trudi Entwistle. Retrieved from

Frank, P. (2012). “Ends of the Earth: Land Art to 1974” at MOCA (The Geffen Contemporary). Art Ltd. Magazine Website.: Gaynor, Andrea and Mclean, Ian (2005) The Limits of Art History: Towards an Ecological History of Landscape Art. Landscape Review. 15 (2) 20-31.

Gardenvisit. (2014). Birth of the Genius Loci. Gardenvisit Website. Retrieved November 1, 2014 from

Gaynor, A. & Mclean, I. (2005). The Limits of Art History: Towards an Ecological History of Landscape Art. Landscape Review.11 (1) 4-11.

Godfrey, T. (1998). Conceptual Art. London: Phaidon Press.

Guggenheim (2015). Process art: U.S. and Europe, mid-1960s. Guggenheim Museum Website. Retrieved November 27, 2015 from

Hargreaves, G. (1983). Postmodernism Looks Beyond Itself. Landscape Architecture Magazine. 73 (4) 60-65.

Hargreaves, G., Czerniak, J., Berrizbeitia, A. & Kelly, L. C. (2009). The Alchemy of Landscape Architecture. London: Thames and Hudson.

Hoeveler, J. D. (1996). The Postmodernist Turn: American Thought and Culture in the 1970s. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

James (Ed.) (2015). Walter De Maria’s Vertical Earth Kilometer. Atlas Obscura. Retrieved October 25, 2015 from

Kastner, J. (1998). Land and Environmental Art. London: Phaidon.

King, Elaine A. (2011). Artists and Environmental Change: The Elusive Power of Contemporary Art. Artes Magazine. Retrieved October 14, 2014 from

Krauss, R. (1979). Sculpture in the Expanded Field. October. 8, 30-44.

Kwon, M. (1997). For Hamburg: Public Art and Urban Identities. In: The Exhibition Catalogue Public Art, Everywhere. Artist Christian Philipp Muller, Hamburg, 95-109.

Kwon, M. (2004). One Place After Another: Site Specific Art and Locational Identity. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The MIT Press.

LaGro, J. A. (2007). Site Analysis: A Contextual Approach to Sustainable Land Planning and Site Design 2nd Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Lailach, M. & Grosenick, U. (2007). Land Art. Koln: Taschen.

Lamborn, P. W., & Weinberg, B. (Eds.) (1999). Avant Gardening: Ecological Struggle in The City and The World. New York: Autonomedia.

Matilsky, B. C. (1992). Fragile Ecologies. New York: Rizzoli.

Mel Chin (2015). Revival Field. Mel Chin Website. Retrieved October 9, 2015 from

Meyer, J. (Ed.). (2010). Minimalism. London: Phaidon Press.

Norberg-Schulz, C. (1980). Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli.

Northumberlandia (2015). Quick change for the Lady of the North. Northumberlandia: The Lady of the North Website. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from

Osborne, P. (Ed.) (2002). Conceptual Art. London: Phaidon Press.

Papapetros, S. & Rose, J. (Eds.) (2014). Retracing the Expanded Field: Encounters between Art and Architecture. Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Raaij, W. F. V. (1993). Postmodern Consumption: Architecture, Art, and Consumer Behavior. In: Raaij, W. Fred Van and Bamossy, Gary J. (Eds.) (1993). E-European Advances in Consumer Research. 1, 550-558.

Richard Long (2015). A Line in Ireland. Richard Long Website. Retrieved November 20, 2015 from

Selanon, P., Srilertchaipanij, H., & Saleh-Bala, M. (2019). The 18th Century Aesthetics and Their Associations with Landscape Architecture and Environmental Art. The Journal of Architectural/Planning Research and Studies. 16(1) 1-14.

Shirazi, M. R. (2008). ‘Genius Loci’, Phenomenology from Without. Retrieved May 21, 2015. International Journal of Architectural Theory.

Smith, K. (2013). Spiral Jetty. Good Morning Gloucester. Retrieved October 5, 2015 from

Tate (2015). Glossary of Art Terms. Tate. Retrieved August 1, 2015 from

The Art Story (2015). Modern Movements Full List. Retrieved September 22, 2015. from The Art Story.

The Center for Land Use Interpretation (2015). Pratt Farm. The Center for Land Use Interpretation. Retrieved January 5, 2015 from

The Harrison Studio (2016). The Survival Pieces 1970-72. Retrieved July 16, 2015 from The Harrison Studio.

This Hidden City (2015). 7000 Oaks and High Line Park. This Hidden City Website. Retrieved Ocotber 25, 2015 from

The New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (2015). Greenstreet: Time Landscape. The New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved December 15, 2015 from

Thornes, J. E. (2008). A Rough Guide to Environmental Art. The Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 33, 391–411.

Weilacher, U. (1996). Between Landscape Architecture and Land Art. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Verlag AG.

Wheeler, D. (1991). Art since Mid Century, 1945 to Present. New York: Vendome Press.