Evaluation Criteria of Low Carbon Destination Concept for Resort Design and Renovation in Koh Chang, Thailand

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Munlika Thipcha
Jaturong Pokharatsiri
Pimonmart Wankanapon


Resort project is one type of the tourism industry affecting the global warming and increased level of green house gases (GHGs) with its high-intensity energy usage and environmental resources depletion. The proficient selection of architectural components and elements in resort architectural design process has a significant impact on sustainable environmental management and energy efficiency of its building. This research has 3 methods and objectives. Firstly, this research studied and reviewed the factors from the resort’s low carbon destination concept, which impact the architectural design of the resort. The aim is to improve the energy efficiency and environmental impact of tourism industry especially from resorts. The reviews included the sustainable architectural design standards and environmental technology theories normally applied on Thai’s hotels and resorts which are; the Standard of Green Leaf Hotels, the Thai’s Rating of Energy and Environmental Sustainability (TREES) for new building and construction and the knowledge in designing environmental technology for hot-humid climate. The conclusion of these key indicators were proposed as an improved indicators for new evaluation standards of hotels and resorts, which normally targeting only hotel/resort management to include the architectural design impact of the building as well. The use of the new standards will benefit both the resort owners and also the architects working in resort design. Secondly, this research analyzed the architectural design concept of resort using the proposed architectural design evaluation as part of the resort’s low carbon destination concept. This to ensure that the proposed evaluation can be applied to resort architectural design. And lastly, to proposed as guidelines for resort design with low carbon destination concept. The purpose is to make the guidelines available for general public involving resort business and design.

                 The proposed architectural design evaluation based on the concept of resort’s low carbon destination is initially tested on 3 case studies; Case 1: The Dewa, Koh Chang hotel, Case 2: The Spa Koh Chang Resort and Case 3: The Koh Chang Kacha Resort & Spa. The result showed that the resort which pass most of the evaluation criteria both on sustainable architectural design and resort management is Case 2: The Spa Koh Chang Resort followed by Case 1: The Dewa, Koh Chang hotel and Case 3: The Koh Chang Kacha Resort & Spa in order. Hence, the researcher used Case 3: the Koh Chang Kacha Resort & Spa as a in-depth case study to further review the effect of architectural design components through computer simulation in order to help improve its evaluation result. Three computer simulation programs were selected to use in this research; 1) eQuest 3.64, energy simulation program, 2) PHOENICS VR, computational fluid dynamic program, and 3) DIALux evo, daylight simulation program. For eQuest 3.64, the researcher used it to see the electricity usage per year of the resort’s building air-conditioning systems. The PHOENICS VR was used to evaluate the effect of natural ventilation through resort’s building. And DIALux evo was used to evaluate the daylight illuminance level with in resort’s buildings. The results from the improved Case 3’s architectural design evaluation and simulations showed that when considered the improvement of architectural components such as window design for ventilation, the use of low-emissivity glazing, high reflectance paint of wall and roof, the increase of roof projection, the used of window shadings and the landscape design around buildings, the evaluation result improved significantly. In conclusion, these architectural components and elements are key indicator in resort architectural design and can help effectively utilizing both daylight and natural ventilation to further lower the energy usage and resource depletion and should be included in the Sustainable Architectural Standard and used as guidelines for resorts and hotels architectural design in the future.


Keywords: Resort, Low Carbon Tourism, Koh Chang, Sustainable Architectural Standard, Resort Evaluation Criteria, Resort design and renovation


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