Community Risk Assessment: Spatial Patterns and GIS-Based Model for Fire Risk Assessment - A Case Study of Chiang Mai Municipality

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Manat Srivanit


The main purpose of this study is to develop a GIS-based approach to fire risk assessment to identify
sites for disaster mitigation planning and management. Fire risk assessment has two main factors: the vulnerability
and capacity for mitigation of the areas, as well as the areas with a fire history. The selection of risk
factors is mainly based on stakeholder analysis, involving four groups: urban planners, fire wardens, local residents
and local government officials. The above data are integrated into raster-based GIS software and then
spatial analysis is performed using an overlay technique to generate the fire risk, ranging from high to low according
to its sensitivity to fire or fire-inducing capability. The result is a map of the varying levels of fire risk
across the city. The weight to each factor is determined by an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). This model
is illustrated with a case study of fire risk of area in the Chiang Mai Municipality (CMM). It is suggested that
risk mapping is helpful for fire management to minimize fire hazards.


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