The Eco-efficiency Model for Outdoor Environmental Design of the Mixed-use Real Estate Development in Bangkok, Thailand

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Jittapat Choruengwiwat
Sarigga Pongsuwan
Napol Kieatkongmanee
Damrongsak Rinchumphu
Manat Srivanit
Choo Yit Yang


Nowadays, the dramatically of urban land developments affect to various of environmental problems, especially in urban heat and the reduction of natural porosity surfaces, then increasing of outdoor temperature and surface water runoff problems. These problems relate to urban residents outdoor living, especially in the large mixed-use real estate developments in Bangkok; the capital city of Thailand. Therefore, the development concerned on mitigating such problems by applying the eco-efficiency modeling to use as a sustainable design guideline for the new project development. The term of eco-efficiency is defined as the ratio of improvement cost per unit of the environmental impacts. This study formulates the eco-efficiency model by using the change of construction cost of outdoor environmental and their impacts which refer to the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) as indicator for thermal comfort index of humans and stormwater runoff. The cost is calculated by simple cost estimation technique. Meanwhile, the microclimate model ENVI-met BioMet (V4) was used for predicting the effect different design options on outdoor thermal comfort using PET, and the Stormwater Runoff Test (SRT) is also calculated by the academic Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) for Autodesk Infraworks 360 software. The results present as the prediction function of the eco-efficiency of the outdoor environmental design. Research suggests that pervious paving materials are broadly capable of lowering temperatures and improving human thermal comfort, and when integrated with trees have potential to meet eco-efficiency objectives. Moreover, the models can be used as the useful guideline for outdoor environmental design to toward the eco-friendly for urban residents’ outdoor living of mixed-use real estate development in Bangkok, Thailand.  KeywordsEco-efficiencyWater SensitiveOutdoor Thermal ComfortPhysiological Equivalent Temperature (PET)Stormwater RunoffSimulation


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