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Harinvid Kanoksinlapatham
Marut Patphol
Wichai Wongyai
Achara Wattananarong


This research aims was to developing factors and behaviors indicating historical thinking. The research methodology comprises three steps. Step 1, systematic data extraction was used to analyze historical concepts from 12 data sources in order to make a synthesis of behaviors indicating historical thinking of each factor. Step 2, an assessment of factors and behaviors of historical thinking were assessed and corrected by means of semi-structured interview by 5 experts. Step 3, 5 experts in social studies were invited to reach consensus and suggest forms of focus group discussion. The research found that there are 5 historical thinking factors, namely, 1) Historical sources and evidence consisting of 9 indicating behaviors, 2) Chronological reasoning consisting of 14 indicating behaviors, 3) Making historical connection consisting of 7 indicating behaviors, 4) Historical significance consisting of 2 indicating behaviors, 5) Historical empathy and ethical dimension consisting of 8 indicating behaviors.

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