A SWOT Analysis of International Cooperation in Smart City Development between South Korea and Thailand: Perspectives from Thailand


  • Nirinthorn Mesupnikom Institute of East Asian Studies, Thammasat University
  • Surapong Wangcharoensak Independent scholar


International cooperation, Smart city development, SWOT analysis, Human Resource; education; development; Thai Government; South Korea Government, tourist loyalty for Thailand


          Since 2019, smart city development has been foundational for the strategic partnership between the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and Thailand. This article examines the environment of South Korean and Thai cooperation to develop smart cities by identifying major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to provide information for ongoing international promotion of mutual cooperation in this field. Qualitative and descriptive research were done with primary and secondary data gathered between March 2021 and August 2022. Data was evaluated by the SWOT analysis, categorized with a two-tier distinguishing between macro,
and micro.

          Results were that positive factors (strengths and opportunities) outnumbered negative ones (weaknesses and threats) in international cooperation in this area, permitting continuous early-stage cooperation. Along with strengths and opportunities advancing cooperation,
Thai weaknesses and Korean strengths on identical subjects were additional significant factors.


Download data is not yet available.


Beneking, A., Ellenbeck, S. & Battaglini, A. (2016). Renewable energy cooperation between the EU and North Africa: Findings of a SWOT analysis. International Journal of Energy Sector Management, 10(3), 312-336.

Cameron, F. Joshua, P. Andrea, R. Alex, E. & Rosanna, F. (2021, October 25). Executive summary international cooperation on artificial intelligence-why, what, and how. Strengthening international cooperation on AI. https://tinyurl.com/243nvba8.

Catapult & the Business of Cities. (2021). Smart city demonstrators, a global review of challenges and lessons learned. Catapult Future Cities. https://tinyurl.com/ yfdpkzky.

China, F. L. & Zielonka, R. (2015). Smart cities cooperation between the EU and China: towards a sustainable future. European Institute for Asian Studies. https://tinyurl.com/2p8mt88s.

Chinwanno, J. (2014). The world in the 21st century: Framework for the analysis of international relations. Bangkok: Printing House of Chulalongkorn University.

Choi, C., Choi, J., Kim, C. & Lee, Dong. (2020). The smart city evolution in South Korea: findings from big data analytics. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(1), 301-311.

Choi, Y. S. (2020). Smart city development projects in the Republic of Korea. R-Economy, 6(1), 40-49. https://doi.org/10.15826/recon.2020.6.1.004.

Digital Economy Promotion Agency (DEPA). (2020). DEPA congratulates Khon Kaen smart city development plan funded by Korean government. https://tinyurl.com/fc2b2cex.

Digital Economy Promotion Agency (DEPA). (2021). Smart city plan. https://www.depa.or.th/th/smart-city-plan.

Fu, W. Tshinghua, H. & Liu, X. (2022). International doctoral students negotiating support from interpersonal relationships and organizational resources during COVID-19. Comparative Education, 24(1), 26-40.

Go Smart. (2022). GO SMART, an international network of smart sities. https://www.citiesgosmart.org/about.

Iamtrakul, P. & Klaylee, J. (2019). Lesson learns of success factors from 10 smart cities development: Thailand context, 1-6. doi: 10.1109/STUD49732.2019.9018765.

JICA. (2020). The study on development of smart city concept for the Bang Sue area in the Kingdom of Thailand the final report. https://tinyurl.com/59247nv9.

John, M. (2018, April 4). Smart cities are complicated and costly: Here’s how to build them. Harvard Business School. https://tinyurl.com/yck75ne4.

Justin, O. (2021, October 28). ASEAN, India can prioritise cooperation on digital transformation, public health: PM Lee. Straitstimes. https://tinyurl.com/5ec4xsw8

Kang, M. (2015). Smart city: Case of Seoul. Nakhara Journal of Environment Design and Planning, 11(2), 87-100.

Kerry, C. (2021). Strengthening international cooperation on AI: Progress report, 3, 6-8, 60, 68-69.

Krishna, S., Pongmethee, C., & Khamkhenapoom. (2021). Policy guidelines for Khon Kaen municipality. Journal of Buddhist Social Sciences and Anthropology, 6(3), 319-333.

Kim, S. (2014). Digital development in Korea: Building an information society - by Myung Oh and James F. Larson. Journal of Communication, 64. 10.1111/jcom.12081.

Kim, Y. J., Hwang, H., & Choi, H. J. (2021). Impediments to driving smart cities: A case study of South Korea. Asian Journal of Innovation and Policy, 10(2), 159-176.

Kwak, Y. & Lee, J. (2021). Toward sustainable smart city: Lessons from 20 years of Korean programs. IEEE Trans Eng Manag.

Kwang, H, & Na Ayudhya, S. (2022). Guidelines for the development of cooperation in the marine and fisheries sector between Thailand and the Republic of Korea. Journal of Political Science and Public Administration, 13(1), 147-174.

Kwang, T. W. (2015). Singapore and Copenhagen: A tale of two smart cities.

Mami, M. (2021, October 13). A world in crisis needs international cooperation. UN Chronicle. https://tinyurl.com/ycsnap99

Meszaros, E. L. (2016). The evaluation of police cooperation between Hungary and Romania in the fight against cross-border financial criminal activities. Eurolimes, 21, 143-156.

Miah, M. & Amin, R. (2020). Role of technologies in the development of smart cities. Engineering International, 8, 31-42.

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. (2020, October 15). New bases for frontline promotion of K-Smart City Model. https://bit.ly/3eT1YzI

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. (2019, November 26). Launching a new smart city cooperation platform for ASEAN and ROK. https://bit.ly/3rFGDPd

Mizutori, M. (2021, October 13). A world in crisis needs international cooperation. UN Chronicle. https://tinyurl.com/3eb6vhbt

National Economic and Social Development Council. (2019), Smart city framework and guidance for Thailand. https://tinyurl.com/5828mmpc

Naprathansuk, N. (2017). A national pilot project on smart city policy in Thailand: A case study on Phuket, Khon Kaen, and Chiangmai province. European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 2(6), 337-346.

OECD. (2020). Smart cities and inclusive growth. https://tinyurl.com/yuke32j2

Oh, L. & Larson, J. (2020). Digital development in Korea: Building an information society. Journal of Communication, 10(64). 10.1111/jcom.12081.

Pham, C. (2014, October). Smart cities in Japan: An assessment on the potential for EU-Japan cooperation and business development. Tokyo, EU-Japan Centre for Industrial Cooperation. https://tinyurl.com/ycnxj9zs.

Sergunin, A., & Konyshev, V. (2016). SWOT analysis of U.S.-Russian Relations. Russian Analytical Digest, 178, 1-9.

Sinfonia. (n.d.). SWOT tool to assess smart city plans. http://www.sinfonia-smartcities.eu/.

Smart City Korea. (2022). Smart city international cooperation. https://tinyurl.com/ynsxxe7v

Theadora, M. (2020, May 29). How the Republic of Korea became a world ICT leader?. ITU News. https://tinyurl.com/3rbhc453

The Embassy of the Republic of Korea in Thailand. (2009). Overview of Korea - Thailand relations. https://tinyurl.com/3x5k8zxu.

The Nation Thailand. (2019, September 3). South Korea, Thailand agree on high-tech industry cooperation, closer defense ties. https://www.nationthailand.com

Tunming, P., Chaigasem, T., & Siriwong, P. (2019). The increasing of potential in tourism logistics supply chain to Khon Kaen ME city, Thailand. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 8(1), 1-12.

UNCTAD. (2021). Why global cooperation on science, technologies and innovation is more crucial than ever. https://tinyurl.com/5bamk97a

UNEDE. (2017). Sustainable smart cities. https://tinyurl.com/whvvuzym

Visakha, P. and Priyanart, S. (2020). Strategies for developing smart travel and transportation for tourism in the Eastern Economic Corridor area. Burapha Journal of Business Management, 9(1), 86-102.

World Bank Group. (2020). Korea innovation 2020: Korea’s smart city strategy, smart cities of Korea and global smart city partnership program. https://tinyurl.com/4sk2kb98

World Economic Forum. (2020, September 22). Why we need international cooperation now more than ever. https://tinyurl.com/4ceyr43r.

Xin-ganga, Z., Yi-shenga, Y., Tian-tiana, F., & Yu-heng, Y. (2013). International cooperation on renewable energy electricity in China – A critical analysis. Renewable Energy, 55, 410-416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.11.039.

Zhao, X., Jiaoli, K. & Lan B. (2013). Focus on the development of shale gas in China—based on SWOT analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 21, 603-613. 10.1016/j.rser.2012.12.044.

이재현 (2020). Smart city, economy, innovation and quality of life: Empirical research on the effect of the first ubiquitous city comprehensive plan in Korea. Seoul National University.




How to Cite

Mesupnikom, N., & Wangcharoensak, S. . (2022). A SWOT Analysis of International Cooperation in Smart City Development between South Korea and Thailand: Perspectives from Thailand. Thai Journal of East Asian Studies, 26(2), 34–52. Retrieved from https://so02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/easttu/article/view/258285



Research Article