The Role of Overseas Study in Systematizing School Education in Later-Developing Countries: Acceptance of Western Academic Study in Modern China
Keywords:China (Qing dynasty), Modernization, Mandarins, Overseas study, Keju
This paper examines trends in Chinese overseas study from the 1870s to the 1920s while analyzing the process of systematizing modern school education in China by considering the significance of overseas study. Texts and official historical documents on Chinese domestic trends and the status of Chinese students overseas were studied. The Qing dynasty attempted a self-strengthening movement (c. 1860–1890) by introducing advanced Western technology; however, a classics-focused traditional system of academia linked to the keju or civil-service examination system in Imperial China, was maintained. Therefore personnel to work with these technologies were
inadequate. Starting in the 1870s, the Japanese government sent students to the West despite the expense at the turn of the century, so remaining in Japan for study became a main goal until the 1910s. The start of modern education in Japan to widespread acceptance coincided with dependence on overseas study. Until school education and modern academic study were domestically accessible in China, overseas study fulfilled that role.
Abe, H. (1990). Chugoku no kindai kyoiku to Meiji Nihon [Chinese modern education and Meiji Japan]. Fukumura Shuppan.
Abe, H. (1993). Chugoku kindai gakkoshi kenkyu: Shinmatsu ni okeru kindai gakko seido no seiritsu katei [Research on modern Chinese school history: The establishment process of the modern school system in the Late Qing era]. Fukumura Shuppan.
Biggerstaff, K. (1961). Earliest modern government schools in China. Cornell University Press.
Cohen, P. A. (1984). Discovering history in China: American historical writing on the recent Chinese past. Colombia University Press.
Chu, S. C., & Liu, K. (1994). Li Hung-chang and China's early modernization. Sharpe.
Eckel, P. E. (1947). The far east since 1500. Harcourt, Brace and Company.
Gaimusho. (1896). Gakusei shimei narabi ni nenrei [Students’ names and ages]. Zaihonpo Shinkoku ryugakusei kankei zassan [Miscellanea regarding Qing students in Japan]. JACAR (Japan Center for Asian Historical Records) Ref. B12081623200, (B-3-10-5-3_2). (Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs).
Gaimusho. (1908). Shinkoku oyobi Kankoku ryugakusei insucho [Survey of numbers of Qing and Korean students in Japan]. Zaihonpo Shinkan ryokoku ryugakusei inzuhyo [Table of numbers of Qing and Korean students in Japan]. JACAR (Japan Center for Asian Historical Records) Ref.B12081640300, (B-3-10-5-9). (Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs).
Gaimusho. (1914). Zaihonpo Shina ryugakusei tokeihyo [Statistical tables on Chinese students in Japan]. Zaihonpo Shinkoku (Shina) ryugakusei kankei zassan dainikan [Miscellanea regarding Qing (Chinese) students in Japan, vol. 2]. JACAR (Japan Center for Asian Historical Records) Ref. B12081629800, (B-3-10-5-3_6_002). (Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs).
Gaimusho. (1924). Zaihonpo Shina ryugakusei genjo chosa [Survey on the status quo of Chinese students in Japan]. Zaihonpo gaikoku ryugakusei kankei zakken dainikan [Miscellanea regarding foreign students in Japan, vol. 2]. JACAR
(Japan Center for Asian Historical Records) Ref. B12081648100, (B-3-10-5-17_2_002). (Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs).
Guo, W. (2010). Zheng Guanying: Merchant reformer of late Qing China and his influence on economics, politics, and society. Cambria Press.
Hayashi, T. (1989). Shoin kyoiku shi [History of shuyuan education]. Gakugei Tosho.
Kao, T. T. (1981). An American sojourn: Young Chinese students in the United States, 1872–1881. Connecticut Historical Society Bulletin, 46(3), 65–77.
Kikuchi, H. (2005). Last emperor to kindai Chugoku: Shinmatsu Chuka minkoku [The last emperor and modern China: The Chinese nation in the late Qing era]. Kodansha.
Lee, K. C. (2013). Golden dragon and purple phoenix: The Chinese and their multi-ethnic descendants in southeast Asia. World Scientific.
Kobayashi, Y. (2002). Chugoku kindai kyoiku no fukyu to kaikaku ni kansuru kenkyu [Research on acceptance and reforms of modern Chinese education]. Kyuko Shoin.
Koshi Henshu Iinkai. (1985). Seijo Gakko hyakunen [A century of the Seijo School]. Seijo Gakko.
LaFargue, T. E. (1941). Chinese educational commission to the United States: A government experiment in western education. The Far Eastern Quarterly, 1(1), 59–70.
Martin, W. A. (1896). A cycle of Cathay, or, China, south and north: With personal reminiscences. O. Anderson.
Mitsuishi, Z. (1994). Dento Chugoku no naihatsuteki hatten [Internal development in traditional China]. Kenbun Shuppan.
Miyazaki, I. (2003). Kakyo: Chugoku no shiken jigoku [Keju: Examination hell in China]. Chuokoron Shinsha.
Nagata, S. (2006). Chugoku Shincho ni okeru honyakusha oyobi honyaku taisho no hensen [Shifts in translators and translated materials in Qing China]. Tsuyaku Kenkyu [Interpretation Studies], 6, 207–228.
Needham, J. (1981). Science in traditional China: A comparative perspective. Harvard University Press.
Okamoto, T. (2007). Ma Kenchu no Chugoku kindai [Ma Jianzhong’s modern China]. Kyoto Daigaku Gakujutsushuppankai.
Pong, D. (1994). Shen Pao-chen and China's modernization in the nineteenth century. Cambridge University Press.
Reaves, J. A. (2004). Taking in a game: A history of baseball in Asia. University of Nebraska Press.
Rhoads, E. J. M. (2011). Stepping forth into the world: The Chinese educational mission to the United States, 1872–81. Hong Kong University Press.
Saito, A. (1981). Chishikijin no keisei to gakusei kaikaku [The formation of intellectuals and the reform of the school system]. In S. Umene (Ed.). Chugoku kyoikushi [A history of education in China] (pp. 44–98). Kodansha.
Saneto, K. (1981). Chugoku ryugakusei shidan [Historical stories of Chinese students abroad]. Daiichi Shobo.
Sakai, J. (2005). 1896-nen Chugokujin Nihon ryugakusei haken/ukeire keii to sono ryugakusei kyoiku [Dispatch/acceptance of Chinese students in Japan in 1896 and their education]. Nihon Kenkyu [Review of Japanese Studies], 31, 191–207.
Sato, S. (1996). Kindai Chugoku no chishikijin to bunmei [Intellectuals and civilization in modern China]. Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai.
Schwartz, B. I. (1964). In search of wealth and power: Yen Fu and the west. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Smith, R. J. (1976). Foreign training and China's self-strengthening: The case of Feng-huang-shan, 1864–1873. Modern Asian Studies, 10(2), 195–223.
Sun, Q. (2011). Shinkokujin no Nihon ryugaku ni kansuru ichi kosatsu: 1890-nen kara 1910-nen made [An examination of Qing Chinese students in Japan: From 1890 to 1910]. Shagakuken Ronshu [The Waseda Journal of Social Sciences], 18, 188–203.
Taga, A. (2006). Chugoku kyoikushi [A history of education in China]. Nihon Tosho Center.
Takegami, M. (2015). Kindai Chugoku ni okeru chishitsugaku no genryu: Raphael Pumpelly wo chushin ni [The roots of geology in modern China: Focusing on Raphael Pumpelly]. In Y. Ishikawa (Ed.). Gendai Chugoku bunka no shinso kozo [The deep structure of modern Chinese culture] (pp. 61–104). Kyoto Daigaku Jinbunkagaku Kenkyujo.
Teng, S., & Fairbank, J. K. (1954). China's response to the west: A documentary survey, 1839–1923. Harvard University Press.
Teow, S. H. (1999). Japan's cultural policy toward China, 1918–1931: A comparative perspective. Harvard Univ Asia Center.
Tominaga, K. (1996). Kindaika no riron: Kindaika ni okeru seiyo to toyo [The theory of modernization: West and east in modernization]. Kodansha.
Tokyo Daigaku Hyakunenshi Henshu Iinkai (Ed.). (1985). Tokyo Daigaku hyakunenshi Tsushi ni [The University of Tokyo centennial history: History vol. 2]. Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai.
Wang, X. (1991). Shinkoku oyatoi Nihonjin [Hired Japanese experts in Qing China]. Asahi Shinbunsha.
Wang, Y. (2010). Chuka minkoku no kenryoku kozo ni okeru kikoku ryugakusei no ichizuke: Nankin seifu (1928–1949-nen) wo chushin toshite [The positioning of returning students in the power structure of the Chinese nation: Focusing on the Nanjing government (1928–1949)]. Hakuteisha.
Wu, B. (2001). Shinmatsu Chugoku ni okeru kindai kogyo gijutsu kyoiku: Fukushu Sensei Gakudo no shiteki kyumei [Modern engineering technology education in late Qing China: Historical exploration of the Fuzhou Naval College]. Mita Gakkai Zasshi [Mita Journal of Economics], 94(3), 459–478.
Yamada, T. (2017). Chiang Kai-shek’s study in Japan in his memories. In L. De Giorgi, & G. Samarani (Eds.). Chiang Kai-shek and his time: New historical and historiographical perspectives (pp. 13–35). Ca' Foscari University Press.
Yan, A. (1991). Nihon ryugaku seishinshi: Kindai Chugoku chishikijin no kiseki [A spiritual history of study in Japan: Traces of modern Chinese intellectuals]. Iwanami Shoten.
Yokoi, K., & Gao, M. (2012). Chugoku Shinmatsu ni okeru ryugakusei haken seisaku no tenkai: Nihon no ryugakusei haken seisaku to no hikaku wo fumaete [The late Qing government's overseas student policy]. Keizaigaku Ronso [Economic Review], 64(1), pp. 103–143.
Zhang, D. (2009). Kindai Chugoku ni okeru Nihon shoseki no honyaku to shokai: 19-seikimatsu kara 20-seiki shoto no gaikyo to sono tokucho [Translation and introduction of Japanese books in early modern China: General status and
characteristics from the late 19th to the early 20th centuries]. Gengo to Bunka [Language and Culture], 10, 197–209.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Thai Journal of East Asian Studies
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.