Thai Journal of East Asian Studies <p>The <strong><em>Thai Journal of East Asian Studies</em> (TJEAS)</strong> is an internationally refereed, bilingual (English and Thai) journal devoted to publishing humanities and social sciences research on issues related to East and Southeast Asia. It aims to be a venue for authors seeking to share their evidences and interpretations on emerging and compelling topics in the scholarship on the region. It also endeavors to be a synergy between discipline-based scholars and area specialists, who come from different academic backgrounds, contributing their knowledge collectively both for educational purposes and for society as a whole. The TJEAS is indexed in the Thai-Journal Citation Index (TCI-2).&nbsp;</p> Institute of East Asian Studies, Thammasat University en-US Thai Journal of East Asian Studies 2730-1435 The establishment of the Chinese legation in Tehran: Chungking’s Middle Eastern strategies and the British Foreign Office (1941-1942) <p>In 1942 the Republic of China established a legation in Tehran. Neither during the last years of the Qājār dynasty nor during the subsequent reign of Reẕā Pahlavī did the Chinese<br>manage to send a diplomatic mission to the capital of the Empire. The change in attitude by the Persian government must therefore obviously be attributed to the new international role of Iran after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of 1941, the abdication of Reẕā Pahlavī, and the accession to the throne of his son Moḩammad Reẕā Pahlavī. Furthermore, the Republic of China, engaged in the hard and long conflict with Japan, was trying to build a diplomatic network in the Near and<br>Middle East that would also support the international re-legitimation after the humiliations suffered since the First Opium War. In particular, the opening of the legation meant the full implementation of the Sino-Persian treaty of 1920. After more than twenty years, the political meaning of that document was probably reconsidered in light of the negotiations with the United States and the United Kingdom regarding extraterritorial rights. The paper, therefore, outlines the political issues and objectives around the opening of the Chinese legation, trying to analyze the role played by the Foreign Office and the British legation in Tehran.</p> Matteo Miele Copyright (c) 2021 Thai Journal of East Asian Studies 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 25 2 1 12 Keeping up with Industry 4.0: An Analysis of Sharing Economy’s Implications on Philippine Political Economy <p>Philippine firms are optimistic about the opportunities presented by Industry 4.0 but only 27 percent can keep up with the changing technological landscape due to high fixed-capital and licensing costs. The World Economic Forum’s 2018 Readiness Assessment underscores that the country has a strong production base for Fourth Industrial Revolution-related activities but is perennially challenged by weak institutional framework, inadequate technology platforms, and insufficient human capital. The government responded through key Industry 4.0-related<br>policies and plans such as the Comprehensive National Industrial Strategy and Inclusive Innovation<br>Industrial Strategy, National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan (2018–2022), and Science for Change Program. Despite this stride, the country is still perennially beset by issues of poverty, corruption, and wealth inequality. Hence, the introduction of the sharing economy (SE) in the Philippines may be taken as a welcome development given the current state of the country’s political economy. Using a descriptive-exploratory approach, this study generated two key findings: (1) the tenets of the liberal perspective are the same forces that continuously<br>underpin the emergence of Industry 4.0 and SE but few deviations can be observed; and (2) SE is expected to further empower Filipino individuals through introducing new means of carrying out<br>production and consumption-related tasks but a proactive regulatory agency is necessary to ensure inclusive growth; and. This study concludes that embodiment of adaptive agility by Philippine<br>government is a key element in effectively competing in an environment increasingly being driven by<br>unprecedented ideas and never-before-seen technologies.</p> Jovito Jose Punzalan Katigbak Copyright (c) 2021 Thai Journal of East Asian Studies 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 25 2 13 31 Ethnocide and The Indigenous Aeta Magbukon <p>This ethnographic study aimed to assess the facts and reasons for ethnocide on the part of the participants. It results from but is not limited to acculturation, assimilation, development, colonial mentality, and geography. The study found that while a significant number of participants have a good understanding of their material culture, their perception of how it is practiced is concerning. Their knowledge of their intangible culture is still sufficient for their continued creativity and existence, and such practice must be considered. Overall, the participants' practice is torn between being kept and discarded. The participant's perception of what causes ethnocide is dominated by a preference for a modern lifestyle, inability to speak the native dialect, non-speaking of the native dialect, and ethnic culture is not taught in-home or school. The majority of participants believe that their ethnic culture should be modified, preserved, or not practiced, particularly in terms of beliefs and practices. Most of the participants strongly agree on the importance of preserving ethnic culture for identity and solidarity.</p> Neil Dimacali David Copyright (c) 2021 Thai Journal of East Asian Studies 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 25 2 32 51 Taiping - Donghak : Ideologies for The Popular Movements in the Last Dynasties of China and Korea <p>This research article attempts to analyse and study the contexts and ideologies that lead to the Taiping popular movement and the Donghak popular movement. The results of the study revealed that the Taiping and Donghak popular movements were not only comparable in the time and the context in which the movements happened, but they also were compared in their<br>ideologies and the consequences to the dynasties.<br>The Qing and the Joseon were the last dynasties of China and Korea to be faced similarly with both internal disturbances and the external influences of imperialism from the beginning of the nineteenth century. The Taiping popular movement (1851-1864) occurred in the late Qing (1644-1912) dynasty and was incubated in the impoverished southernmost area, full of radical ethnic discrimination. Likewise, the Donghak popular movement (1894-1895) emerged in the late Joseon (1392-1910) dynasty in the Southern provinces where many suffered from poverty and corruption from local officers.<br>Their ideologies for the movements were based on religious dogma, egalitarianism, and being anti-foreigner. The Taiping principles were the combination of Christianity and ancient Chinese beliefs, the utopian ideal of equality in the land and treasury, anti-Manchus, and anti-Confucianism. Comparably, the Donghak concepts were humanism, farmland distribution, and “Donghak Religion” - Eastern Learning, founded in the 1860s by Choe Je-u. The Donghak religion, which was recently known as Cheondoism or The Heavenly Way, was a fusion idea of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Korean Shamanism. It was used to react to the “Seohak” - Western Learning.</p> ณัฐวดี เจนสิริผล ศิริพร ดาบเพชร Copyright (c) 2021 Thai Journal of East Asian Studies 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 25 2 52 69 Factors in the formulation of Thailand's policy to promote the Thailand – Malaysia Special Border Economic Zone: A case study on the Songkhla Special Economic Development Zone <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; This study explains important factors in the formulation of the Special Economic Development Zone policy in Thailand to promote the Thailand – Malaysia Special Border Economic Zone. It focuses on the border area in the Songkhla Special Economic Development Zone. The study uses the complex interdependence concept of Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye as a framework. The research method is qualitative research by using primary sources and secondary sources to study factors attributing to the formulation of the Songkhla Special Economic Development Zone policy and economic connectivity between the Thailand - Malaysia border.<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The study found that these are three external factors attributing to the formulation of the Special Economic Development Zone policy in Thailand. The first factor was the ASEAN regional cooperation framework. The Thai government prepared to enter the ASEAN community in 2015 and connect the economy with neighboring countries. The second factor was the Indonesia – Malaysia –Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT – GT) framework. It resulted in the formulation of border development plans and the promotion of economic connectivity between Thailand and Malaysia. The third factor was the Northern Corridor Economic Region (NCER) development plan of Malaysia. The framework helped to promote border development in Thailand and Malaysia. Therefore, Thailand formulated the Special Economic Development Zone policy in Thailand. It resulted in the determination of the Songkhla Special Economic Zone policy to connect the economy in the southern region of Thailand with Malaysia.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ปิยนาถ อิฏฐกรพันธ์ พงศ์พิสุทธิ์ บุษบารัตน์ Copyright (c) 2021 Thai Journal of East Asian Studies 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 25 2 70 83 Legal education on the current authority of crime scene protection and security in Thailand, United States of America, Singapore and Australia: A case study of protection and security of the crime scene of Inquiry Officials and the study on knowledge of journalists in Pathum Thani province of Thailand <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Documentary research was conducted about the current status of crime scene protection and security. An international comparative legal study was made of legislation in Thailand, the United States of America, Singapore, and Australia. Quantitative research was also conducted, with data gathered by questionnaire. Samples were 98 investigators and 50 journalists in Pathum Thani province. Data was analyzed and compared to develop suggestions for crime scene protection and security.<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The documentary research results found that the authority on crime scene protection in Thailand for police regulations is Criminal Code B.E. 2499 (1956) Section 138 and 368, which are used to prosecute personnel who enter a crime scene without permission. In the United States of America, the authority can be identified in the Crime Scene Investigation Manual and has been used to prosecute personnel committing violations in the state of Michigan. In Singapore and Australia, legislation exists in the form of an Act. Nevertheless, prosecution against crime scene violations has yet to occur in Thailand, Singapore, and Australia as it already exists in America. Quantitative results found that Inquiry Officials performance was mostly at a good level. There should be sanctions against intruders of a crime scene who enter without permission. The study also found that knowledge of crime scene protection and security journalists was mostly at a low level. These findings imply that knowledge should be primarily prioritized.<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; In addition, more support in terms of equipment, workforce, police patrol, foundation officials, journalists, and citizens, is required. From a legal perspective, a revision to the Code of Police Regulations on Litigation, Section 132 of the Criminal Procedure Code B.E. 2477(1934), and proposed bills for Protection and Security of the Crime Scene are needed, as well as enhanced enforcement of existing law in Thailand.</p> กัลยกร ปารัชต์ธนากุล Copyright (c) 2021 Thai Journal of East Asian Studies 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 25 2 84 99